Into Thin Air
Examples Of Perseverance in The Novel Into Thin Air By Jon Krakauer
The spring of 1996 becomes the deadliest climbing season in Everest history. Jon Krakauer is one of the many people climbing the summit at the time, and would go on to create a personal account of the events that took place. The novel, Into Thin Air, by Krakauer, shows perseverance through the experiences of climbers Beck Weathers, Rob Hall, and Anatoli Boukreev on Everest throughout the book.
One example of perseverance in the novel is Beck Weathers’ survival against all odds in the nightmarish conditions of Mt. Everest. Weathers is a doctor from East Texas with little climbing experience but an intense desire to climb Everest. He gains the respect of Krakauer through his endless motivation to continue, but Beck begins to deteriorate in the conditions of Everest. Mike Groom discovers him, lying in the snow, and has to help him down the mountain, Groom, just as surprised to see Beck as I had been, got out his rope and began short-roping the Texan down toward the South Col. “Beck was so hopelessly blind,’’ Groom reports, “that every ten meters he’d take a step into thin air and I’d have to catch him with the rope. I was worried he was going to pull me off many times”. Beck’s mentally and physically debilitated condition will force him to have a strong willpower if to withhold his will to live. This disaster culminates in an intense storm trapping a large group of people to a small, frigid outcrop where they eventually leave Beck after he detaches himself from them, “Then he rolls a little distance away, crouches on a big rock, and stands up facing the wind with his arms stretched out to either side. A second later a gust comes up and blows him over backward into the night … that was the last I saw of him.”
The rest of the expedition believes he is long past saving because of this experience and the condition Stuart Hutchinson finds him in later on, Beck’s head was caked with a thick armor of frost. Balls of ice the size of grapes were matted to his hair and eyelids. After clearing the frozen detritus from Beck’s face, Hutchinson discovered that the Texan was still alive, too … “His right glove was missing and he had terrible frostbite. I tried to get him to sit up but I couldn’t. He was as close to death as a person can be and still be breathing.” Beck is left here where many presume he will die, in order to not “needlessly jeopardize the lives of the other climbers” trying to “attempt a rescue”. Beck is extremely isolated where he is left, and will have to channel all the strength left in him to be able to withstand the conditions he is left in. Everyone at camp is caught aghast when Weathers makes it back to camp, Burleson was standing outside the tents when he noticed someone walking slowly towards camp with a peculiar, stiff kneed gait … The person’s bare right hand, naked to the frigid wind and grotesquely frostbitten, was outstretched in a kind of odd, frozen, salute … it was none other than Beck Weathers, somehow risen from the dead. After this almost impossible resurrection, the doctors at Camp treat him, and he lives to tell the tale. His return from a near-death experience marks his extreme perseverance in some of the worst conditions possible on Earth.
Another example of perseverance in the novel is Rob Hall’s unstoppable drive to bring Doug Hansen to the summit. Rob Hall is a renowned climber and guide from New Zealand, and takes deep pride in bringing his clients to the Summit of Everest. One of his clients, Doug Hall, has had this delayed for him,Exactly one year earlier, Hall had turned Hansen around on the South Summit at 2:30 P.M., and to be denied so close to the top was a crushing disappointment to Hansen. He told me several times that he’d returned to Everest in 1996 largely as a result of Hall’s advocacy — he said Rob had called him from New Zealand “a dozen times” urging him to give it another shot — and this time Doug was absolutely determined to bag the top.
Rob Hall is determined to bring Doug to the top in fear of disappointing him yet again, and misses his turn around time “a full two hours earlier” because of it, in an “uncharacteristic lapse of judgement”. Rob continues with Doug because of this questionable decision, but they begin to encounter larger troubles on their way down. Hansen eventually “runs out of oxygen and founders”. Rob repeatedly tries to get help, “Hall got on the radio to say that he and Hansen were in trouble high on the summit ridge and urgently needed oxygen.” Hall and Hansen are in a extremely dangerous situation at this point, and Rob decides to “remain with Hansen and try to bring the nearly helpless client down without gas”. Later on a radio call with his friend Guy Cotter, Rob Hall explains the helpless situation, “At 4:30, however, Hall called to say that Doug was out of oxygen and unable to move.” Rob Hall is unable to make it down the summit because he is weighed down by the almost lifeless Doug. Rob is able to make it to some oxygen, but later on he calls in to say “Doug … is gone.” Rob slowly makes his way down the mountain, but throughout this he makes several radio calls that reveal his debilitated state. He ends up dying in the conditions of Everest, but his unending drive to bring his clients to the summit and his desperate struggle for his and Doug’s survival show his immense perseverance.
A final example of perseverance in the novel is Anatoli Boukreev’s struggle to help the climbers stranded on the mountain. Boukreev is a renowned Russian-Kazakhstani guide on Fischer’s team with wide-ranging experience on Everest. He makes the decision to climb “without gas” (supplemental oxygen) and he “didn’t have a backpack” with “items necessary to help climbers in the event of an emergency”. Anatoli acts irresponsibly because of his low-oxygen induced state, and makes his journey up and down the slope quickly, without taking time to help the slower climbers. Boukreev is met by Schoening and Beidleman later at camp, where he is told “where to find the five clients who’d remained behind out in the elements”. Boukreev sets out to rescue the trapped climbers, but his first venture is unsuccessful, Visibility was maybe a meter. It disappeared altogether … I tried to go faster, but my visibility was gone . . . That is very dangerous … I tried to go up, it was dark, I could not find the fixed line. Boukreev is stressed over the condition of his fellow group members, is “so tired, so exhausted” and resorts to “sitting down on his pack at the edge of camp, cradling his head in his hands, and trying to figure out how he might rescue them”. Later on, he makes a second attempt, so the Russian guide resolved to bring back the group by himself. Overcoming his own crippling exhaustion, he plunged into the maw of the hurricane and searched the Col for nearly an hour. It was an incredible display of strength and courage, but he was unable to locate any of the missing climbers. Boukreev has the willpower to make another (failed) attempt at finding the climbers, but does not stop there. He makes a final trip out a short while after,This time he saw the faint glow of Madsen’s fading headlamp and was thereby able to locate the missing climbers … As soon as Boukreev found the group, it was obvious bring only one climber at a time. He was carrying and oxygen bottle, which he and Madsen hooked up to Pittman’s mask. Then Boukreev indicated to Madsen that he’d be back as soon as possible and started helping Fox towards the tents. Anatoli’s endless determination to rescue the missing climbers shows his perseverance in the face of heavy adversity. He braves the elements and puts his own life in danger to finish this mission. Boukreev still has hopes for his most beloved partner, Scott Fischer, and tries to save him as well, At 5:00 PM, as the storm intensified, the Russian headed up alone to save him. “I find Scott at seven o’clock” … “His oxygen mask is around face, but bottle is empty. He is not wearing mittens, hands completely bare. Down suit is unzipped, pulled of his shoulder, one arm is outside clothing. There is nothing I can do. Scott is dead.” With a heavy heart, Boukreev lashed Fischer’s backpack across his face as a shroud and left him where he lay. Then he collected Scott’s camera, ice ax, and favorite pocket knife – which Beidleman would later give to Scott’s nine year old son in Seattle – and descended into the tempest. Anatoli makes a courageous effort to save Fischer, even with the low chance of success. Throughout the disaster on Everest, he never stops in his drive to help those stranded on the mountain. He displays immense bravery and perseverance against all odds, and lives are saved because of his actions.
The acts of Beck Weathers, Rob Hall, and Anatoli Boukreev are perfect examples of courage on the summit and perfectly display the perseverance in Into Thin Air. In life, we all climb our own summit, with hardships along the way, and these peoples’ stories can be an inspiration to overcome the adversity we face every day. If they can keep their will in the worst conditions imaginable, then we can triumph over our personal challenges.
Great Aspirations VS Great Risks
Examining Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer through two different literary theories allowed me to gain insight on the text on a deeper level of understanding. Reader Response theory challenged me to step into Krakauer’s shoes and connect to his story using my own identity and personal experiences, while Postcolonial theory opened my eyes to the underlying issue of the influence of Western presence on Sherpa culture. However, my analysis through a Reader Response perspective was an effective way to help me understand the author’s message that high aspirations come with great risks. This is shown through Krakauer’s motivation to succeed, his strained marriage, and the psychological toll the mountain takes on him..
Krakauer’s intention of climbing Everest obviously comes with risks to his physical health, but through his journey to the mountain, it is evident that motivation trumps this uncertainty. When Krakauer is asked to travel to Everest to report for Outside magazine, he initially fears the adventure as Everest’s lowest point – the base camp – was already a higher altitude than he had ever climbed before (Krakauer, 28). The uncertainty, as well as the unknown physical challenges that lie ahead are what hold him back at first. However, this fear of the unknown does not stay for too long as his “boyhood dreams die hard, [he] discovered, and good sense be damned.
When asked if I was sure I wanted to go through with this, I said yes without even pausing to catch my breath.” (28), demonstrating that motivation, passion, and interest push him away from the fear and towards his dream to climb. I interpret this conflicted start to his journey as a struggle that almost everyone, including myself, goes through at least once in their lives. Krakauer’s motivation standing face to face with his uncertainty and doubts can interact and connect to an incredible amount of personal choices I have made throughout the years. For instance, though playing basketball poses a huge risk to my physical well being (for example, if I were to get a serious injury from playing), the possibility of that risk does not stop me from participating in the sport. Why? Simply because the motivation to attempt an activity is stronger than the uncertainty that plagues one’s mind.
Not only can huge ambitions challenge one’s doubts and uncertainties – it can test one’s personal and social life as well. Krakauer puts his relationship with his wife at risk when he chooses to pursue his passion – climb Everest. His climbing puts a great deal of stress between the two as he and his wife inch closer and closer to divorce, mainly because his climbing “lay at the core of [their] troubles.” (88). I have noticed that there is very little mention of his wife throughout the novel – mainly only in small sections. I thought, initially, that it was because his relationship was still strained due to his love for climbing. However, through transactional analysis, Krakauer’s relationship to his wife interacts with me in a different way than I expected. I feel that this lack of information about his wife embodies the state of their relationship during the period of time that he wrote this book – right after his Everest experience. It seems as if their relationship is strained and is put at risk due to the trauma that Krakauer has just experienced, not because of his passion for climbing. There is a sly, underlying tension between Krakauer and his wife displayed throughout the entire novel, demonstrating the not-so-easily seen consequences of the risk that is taken to pursue one’s passion.
With such an immense task like climbing Everest, there is a certain psychological risk that may haunt a person by attempting it. As Krakauer descends from the summit, he experiences extreme confusion due to his depleting oxygen source, causing him to make a mistake that he would regret for the rest of his life. Krakauer confuses his colleague, Andy, for another man during an encounter on the mountain, leading him to believe that Andy had gotten back to camp safely. But in reality, Andy was nowhere to be found and presumed dead, leaving Andy’s family – who had gotten news from Krakauer that Andy was safe – in emotional distress from the heartbreaking situation (231). Krakauer’s flawed mental state triggered an emotional response from my perspective as a reader. A mistake, to this extent, can take a huge mental toll on anyone, let alone someone who has been through as much physical and emotional trauma as Krakauer. But that is the thing with big dreams and goals – one has to essentially drive themself crazy and be unafraid to make mistakes in order to achieve something so grand. That takes a great deal of mental vigour and endurance, something that is hard to do when one does not even have enough oxygen to function. One needs to accept and learn to work with the psychological risks that come with their dream in order to start working towards it.
Shown through three very different examples – his motivation, his marriage, and his psychological health – Krakauer seamlessly weaves his main idea through the novel without anyone really noticing. Though Postcolonial literary theory offered me a fresh perspective of Into Thin Air, Reader Response theory allowed me to connect to and identify Krakauer’s main message that he tries to portray – with great ambition comes great uncertainty.
A Story Of Climbing Mount Everest in Into Thin Air Novel
Into the Air of Death
Over 290 people, in total, have died attempting the climb on Mount Everest. Would you want to be apart of that statistic? The true story of Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer, tells the tale of Krakauer and his team’s journey to the top of the Mount Everest, the tallest mountain in the world. The book really exemplifies the many hardships and variables of the summiting of Mount Everest. Many people on the climb die, some lose body parts or are permanently wounded, and others barely get by. Climbing the treacherous Mount Everest is not worth the risks due to the unpredictable weather patterns, high death tolls, and also the high risk low reward factor.
First off, summiting Mount Everest is unreasonable because of the unpredictable weather patterns. An example of these awful weather patterns is Jon Krakauer’s journey to the top of Mount Everest. Jon and his team got to the top of the mountain, with little problems, but when they finally reached the top, Krakauer noticed how storm clouds started forming after the sky had been completely clear almost an hour ago and writes:
A moment later, I paused to take another photo, this one looking down the Southeast Ridge, the route we had ascended. Training my lens on a pair of climbers approaching the summit, I noticed something that until that moment had escaped my attention. To the south, where the sky had been perfectly clear just an hour earlier, a blanket of clouds now hid Pumori, Ama Dablam, and the other lesser peaks surrounding Everest…
But I can attest that nothing I saw early on the afternoon of May 10 suggested that a murderous storm was bearing down. To my oxygen-depleted mind, the clouds drifting up the grand valley of ice known as the Western Cwm* look innocuous, wispy, insubstantial. (Krakauer, 8-9)
Krakauer states in his story how an hour before his team reached the summit, the sky had been completely clear and there was no sign of a storm brewing. When they reach the summit, however, Krakauer notices that a blanket of clouds have covered the surrounding mountains, foreshadowing to the storm that is about to happen later on in the story that leads to many people’s deaths. According to Jon Krakauer, many people died to this storm, including sherpa and guides. With him saying, “nothing I saw early on the afternoon of May 10 suggested that a murderous storm was bearing down” shows how even an advanced and experienced climber such as Jon Krakauer, didn’t see the storm coming because there were really no signs of it. This just shows how sudden and dangerous these storms are because 8 people died due to the sudden change of weather. Also, when Jon says, “To my oxygen-depleted mind, the clouds drifting up the grand valley of ice known as the Western Cwm looked innocuous, wispy, insubstantial” also suggests that because of the little to no oxygen near the summit of Everest, people’s minds and judgement are clouded because they don’t have oxygen to think about decisions carefully and this just further emphasizes the dangers of Mount Everest. Overall, the weather on Mount Everest is too unpredictable that it makes climbing even more dangerous than it already is.
Secondly, climbing Mount Everest is ill-advised because of the high death rates while climbing the mountain. On average, one in every four people die while attempting the climb on Mount Everest, either ascending or descending. Krakauer explains how tragic climbing the mountain can be by saying:
Later-after six bodies had been located, after a search for two others had been abandoned, after surgeons had amputated the gangrenous right hand of my teammate Beck Weathers-people would ask why…
Why did veteran Himalayan guides keep moving upward, ushering a gaggle of relatively inexperienced amateurs-each of whom had paid as much as $65,000 to be taken safely up Everest-into an apparent death trap? Nobody can speak for the leaders of the two guided groups involved, because both men are dead. (Krakauer, 8)
Krakauer writes how these eight people died or went missing and how people, such as Beck Weathers, have lost limbs and bodily functions due to the freezing temperature up on Everest. The top five causes of death on Mount Everest are avalanches, falling from great heights, exposure or frostbite, icefall collapsing, and altitude sickness. The many causes of death that are possible make Everest a lot more dangerous because it is almost impossible to prepare for all of them. Also, so many people have died whilst summiting Everest that it is very common to see people’s dead bodies while climbing. When Jon says, “Later-after six bodies had been located, after a search for two others had been abandoned” he means that if you die on Everest, it is not likely that your body will even make it off of the mountain. People have to pay for others to retrieve the bodies of loved ones who die on Everest. That just shows how dangerous this place can be. Sometimes, people don’t even know how you die because of how easy it is to get separated from your climbing group and to get lost. Doesn’t that just sound scary to think about? You die and nobody even knows how or where you died. Anyways, climbing this mountain is extremely dangerous and completely absurd.
Lastly, Mount Everest is not even worth trying to climb because of the high risk, low reward factor. Usually, people won’t even get the chance to experience the ‘top of the world’ if they survive, for more than five minutes. In Into Thin Air, Jon Krakauer and his team only get to stay on the summit for about five minutes:
I’d arrived on the summit a few minutes after Anatoli Boukreev, a Russian climbing guide working for an American commercial expedition, and just ahead of Andy Harris, a guide on the New Zealand-based team to which I belonged. Although I was only slightly acquainted with Boukreev, I’d come to know and like Harris well during the preceding six weeks. I snapped four quick photos of Harris and Boukreev striking summit poses, the turned and headed down. My watch read 1:17 P.M. All told, I’d spent less than five minutes on the roof of the world. (Krakauer, 8)
When he reaches the summit, Krakauer meets up with Andy Harris and Anatoli Boukreev, two other climbers who are on the expedition along side Jon. Later on, Andy Harris goes missing and is not found to this very day. This quote is conveying the very small amount of time that is able to be spent on the top of Everest. If you survive, there really isn’t anything that one may get out of climbing Mount Everest except some cool pictures and some new friends. People have to pay up to $65,000 to be taken up the mountain and after that, they have to exert everything that they have into surviving the treacherous climb just to get to the top. After you get to the top, there is really nothing else that happens. After the summit, you then have to attempt to descend without dying. If you survive the whole journey, what do you get out of it? An item off the bucket list? Was it worth it? Nearly dying and probably getting severely injured just to say that they got to the top of the tallest mountain in the world. Yeah, that sounds cool but still, it’s not worth dying for.
All in all, reaching the top of Mount Everest is not worth the risks because of the erratic weather conditions, the tremendous death tolls on the mountain, and also the extremely low reward for what someone goes through. First of all, the unpredictable weather conditions such as storms and avalanches are some of the leading causes of death on Mount Everest. Secondly, about one in every four climbers on Mount Everest don’t make it back alive. Lastly, nothing is achieved by completing such a tremendous journey. So, one must ask themselves, is it worth enduring all of this pain and loss and many hardships just to get to the top of a mountain?
Multi Faced Character in Into Thin Air Novel
Into Thin Air
Throughout reading the novel Into Thin Air, you see Jon Krakauer as a multi faced character. He is not only the author of the book, he is the protagonist of the story while being someone crazy enough to be apart of an Everest mission. He was hired by a magazine company to write an article about the principles of climbing Everest. Throughout climbing the mountain Krakauer describes his teammates who are apart of the Adventure Consultants climbing service. His descriptions of his teammates really get you involved and close to the characters in the story. Krakauer makes a complete timeline throughout the book of the adventures and struggles him and his team faced while climbing. Into Thin Air also enlightens you on the dangers of altitude sickness. Krakauer’s detailed writing of altitude sickness made you worrisome and scared for him and his group. Although the group went through many dangerous obstacles, the first death didn’t happen until halfway through the book. From this point on in the book, death to the climbers seemed almost as mundane. The climax of the story happens at the final push to the summit. Rob Hall, the leader of the climbers, set a turn back point where no matter how close you are to the top, you must turn around if you don’t make it in time. However this wasn’t followed and the worst of all nightmares happened. A giant storm hit the summit. Krakauer was ahead of his climbing group so he made it back to camp safely, but had no idea what will happen to his friends.
Three of the characters, Hall, Hansen, and Fischer get lost in the storm. Hasen then runs out of oxygen and later dies. Fischer was found, but unfortunately dead. One of the guide’s assistants dies while trying to save Hall and Hansen. The reason to why I am adding all of these deaths in the book summary, is because part of the book is understanding how dangerous climbing Mt. Everest is. These horrific, detailed deaths really impact you and make you feel sorry for the characters you grown to like. One of the characters, Beck Weathers made it out alive, however he had to go through terrible amputations for his injuries. Krakauer reflected a lot of what happened on the mountain and how it has affected his life. In parts of Into Thin Air, Jon Krakauer goes to his unique writing style by reflecting the events of his books on his own personal life. He talks about the survivor’s guilt he has endorsed after making it out alive and how the guilt has affected his life.
After reading Into Thin Air, I can easily say I feel the book has haunted me. Jon Krakauer is an incredible storyteller with such detailed writing to make you feel as if you are on that mountain with him. Krakauer went through all of his feelings of survivor’s guilt throughout certain parts in the book. He states: “We were too tired to help. Above 8,000 meters is not a place where people can afford morality” (Krakauer 101). This shows that at a certain point making it out alive yourself is more important than having morals for others. Krakauer’s deeply comprehensible story telling abilities made me feel like it was a fictional novel. Although going into this book thinking I knew how deadly Everest is, I appreciate Krakauer’s ability to really enlighten me on the horrific experiences climbers face on attempting to climb the tallest mountain in the world. Before reading Into Thin Air, I expected it to just be a book about an ordinary Everest mission and maybe it will be an interest to me. After reading a few chapters I knew I was hooked. I very much enjoyed reading Into Thin Air because I felt that I didn’t just learn a lot more about Mt. Everest, I was also given life lessons. I would highly recommend this book to anyone who has an interest in learning more about Mt. Everest and the dangers climbers must face to complete this seemed unachievable accomplishment.
The protagonist in Into Thin Air is a man named Jon Krakauer who is also the author. Some of his portrayed characteristics is being adventurous, hard headed, and mentally tough. This book clearly displays Krakauer’s adventurous side since he is climbing the scariest, most challenging mountain in the world. Krakauer is shown as extremely mentally tough throughout the book since he had to watch his friends die and worry about surviving the expedition. His trait of being super mentally tough is a very important characteristic because “the slopes of Everest are littered with corpses” (Krakauer 76). Krakauer continuously shows throughout the book how mentally tough you must be in order to achieve such an accomplishment. One of the main unique features I felt about this book was that the main character was also the author of the story. It made you really close and understand the author’s back life and personality along with the protagonist of the novel. All in all I believed this book was an incredible read and I recommend it to anyone who is interested in a jaw dropping adventure.
Main Characters in Into Thin Air Novel
Reading Into Thin Air, by Jon Krakauer, was an experience that made the reader feel as if he or she was actually climbing on Mount Everest in the Himalayan Mountains with Krakauer himself. He brought the reader into the story by making the reader feel like an extension of the adventure. One way Krakauer made this possible was through his characters and how he described them. Whether it was the rich exploratory westerners or the humble local Sherpas, Krakauer conveyed these characters with as much truth and conviction as he felt necessary.
The first character of interest was Rob Hall. Krakauers depiction of Hall was, he stood six foot three or four and was skinny as a pole. There was something cherubic about his face, yet he looked older than his thirty-five yearsperhaps it was the sharply etched creases at the corners of his eyes, or the air of authority he projected (38). From that description alone one can gain an understanding of Hall. Hall is a well-respected man who is nearly a legend in his sport. Krakauer himself felt a connection to him; both men shared a passion for climbing. Krakauer later went on to describe Halls life growing up in a catholic family. After Hall dropped out of school, he worked for a sporting goods store where he had, impressive organizational skills, which were apparent even when he was sixteenhe was soon running the entire production of the company (39). It seems as though Hall was almost destined to become a leader, which appeals to a reader who likes to see others succeed. Halls demise was partly his fault, but he was not supposed to go out like that; frozen to death and left to die.
The next character that had an interesting description was Ian Woodall. Krakauers initial depiction was a South African man whom was a decent person. Woodall was gaudy, but only out of national pride. But only a page later did the bombard of crude remarks about Woodall come flying. Andy de Klerks perception of Woodall was:
Woodall, the leader, turned out to be a complete asshole. A total control freak. And you couldnt trust himwe never knew if he was talking bullshit or telling the truth. We didnt want to put our lives in the hands of a guy like that. So we left (125).
Furthermore, these comments from de Klerk suggest that Woodall was a not a well liked person on the Tibetan Jomolungma. But Woodall was just getting started. Later when the Adventure Consultants were in dire need of a radio, David Breashears, IMAX leader, declared, We knew the South African had a powerful radioplease lend your radio to Jon Krakauer. And Woodall said no. It was very clear what was at stake, but they wouldnt give up their radio (285). Woodall seemed to be quite selfish and made a lot of climbers tempers flare even though he knew the storm had begun to climax and take lives in the process. Woodall, through all the hatred surrounding him, managed to climb to the summit and return successfully; a feat that twelve others could not manage. The next character of significance and intrigue was that of Beck Weathers. Beck was left for dead along with Yasuko Namba some distance above Camp Four. While on a rescue mission, Hutchinson asked the Sherpas for advice and they said, Even if they survived long enough to be carried back to Camp Four, they would certainly die before they could be carried down to Base Camp (323). This was the first time Weathers was left to die in the arctic-like conditions. But Beck was a resilient chap and made it to Camp Four when Burleson saw a, persons bare right handit was none other than Beck Weathers risen from the dead (328). Then next time Krakauer and his group left Beck to die was when they headed to down to Camp Two. But Beck would not let that happen. Breashears was helping Beck, under his own power, descend down the massively steep South Col. Krakauer noted that given up for dead yet again, Beck had simply refused to succumb (340). Nevertheless Beck was looked over again. This time a helicopter came down on an emergency attempt to bring back those in severe circumstances. But Weathers did not go on the first flight back to safe ground; he was made to wait for the next helicopter. For the third time Beck had been overlooked. Beck Weathers was a hero; he showed determination and an iron will too strong to break.
The entire cast seemed to be brought to life by Krakauer and his animated and lively comments, remarks, and side notes. Krakauer used the poetry of his words to bring substance to his tome. It was pleasing to read the accounts on Everest from his perspective. Krakauer wrote a brilliant book that should be read for many years to come because of his superior writing ability.
Mount Everest’s summit in the book into thin air by Jon Krakauer
Commercialism on Everest
Into Thin Air, a national bestselling novel written by Jon Krakauer, told about the 1996 trek to the summit of Mount Everest and the catastrophic events on that day that resulted in the death of eight people. Jon, a proficient climber and journalist, was sent by Outside Magazine to climb Everest in 1996 and write an article about his experience. Rob Hall, a renowned New Zealand mountaineer, led Krakauer and his teammates on one of the deadliest Everest hikes ever. Supplementary teams, including Scott Fischers and Antoli Bourkeevs teams, were also trying to summit when an unexpected storm hit. This is the story of the Mount Everest tragedy of 1996. The novel gave insight into the many ways money played a role in the commercialization of the world’s highest mountain. Commercialism embedded itself in climbing in multiple ways including: the cost to climb the mountain, the fight for which guide service could attract the most media attention, and the pressure on the guides to summit.
The cost of climbing the highest summit in the world was clearly a key component to the theme of commercialism. The fee abruptly rose from “$2,300 for a permit that allowed a team of any size” (25) in 1991 to “$10,000 for a team of up to nine climbers, with another $1,200 to be paid for each additional climber” (25) in the following year alone. The price rose that much because the Nepalese ministers raised the price of climbing permits. By raising the cost of the climbing permits they hoped to limit crowds and still increase the cash flow. In 1993 the price rose to “$50,000 for as many as five climbers, plus $10,000 for each additional climber, maximum of seven” (25). The Nepalese authorities had no idea, however, that China was offering additional tours at a much lower cost. The higher the price rose, the more people knew about Everest and developed a thirst to climb it and learn more about it. Along with the cost of the expedition itself, there was an additional cost to pay for personal sherpas. Sherpas, Himalayan folk living on the borders of Nepal and Tibet, were guides that led people up the mountain and carried their items.
The fight for media attention was also relative to the theme of commercialism. Sandy Pittman, a self-proclaimed expert climber, was a person of desire for most of the teams because of her connection to NBC Interactive Media (123). The teams were all looking for a way to catch the media’s eye. Since Sandy had such a close relation with NBC, she became a necessity for the teams and an actual part of Scott Fischer’s team. Who would summit first? was the main question that ran through everyone’s mind that was keeping track of the teams. Since they were such a cohesive team, they even reached the summit first at 1:07 PM (274). The Mountain Madness team most likely had the maximum media attention possible.
There was much pressure on the guides of the teams to see who would reach the top first. Guides knew this and because of it, they often made impaired decisions, blinded by the possibility that his team could be on the headline of a newspaper somewhere. When Antoli Bourkeev pushed his team to summit, he should have stopped due to safety concerns (263). Many other poor decisions were made due to the fact that they were so close, yet so far. Also, the pressure on guides to summit resulted in the loss of many lives (317). This was an unforgettable ordeal that would continue to live in infamy for years postliminary.
The price of climbing the mountain, fight for media attention, and pressure on the guides of the teams to summit, all were forms of commercialism. Most of the climbers only wanted to scale the mountain because of its title of the highest point on earth. They wanted to be able to say that they had been “on top of the world”. For the guides, the thought of being the first out of several teams to summit, loomed in their heads. Along with the extraordinary title of being one of the few to reach the peak of Everest. Commercialism was the main theme of the novel Into Thin Air and was the reason that many wanted to climb it in the first place.
J. Krakauer’s Into Thin Air: A Review of the Gripping Story
Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mr. Everest Disaster
As a child, Jon Krakauer dreamed of climbing, but he never dreamed that this one climb would be a disaster. Krakauer was assigned by Outside Magazine to report on the commercial expeditions that were being conducted on Mount Everest in May 1996. Jon Krakauer, the narrator and author, describes a first hand account of this ill-fated journey. Krakauer, his guide, and a group of climbers set out to the top of Mt. Everest to see how wise or safe it was to tackle the world s largest mountain. Unfortunately, 1996 was Everest s worst season ever, and Krakauer recounts the heroism, the human frailty and the regrets of this disastrous climb.
Jon Krakauer was one of eight clients sent to Nepal, the country which is home to Everest, to write about an expedition to the top of the world. On May 10, 1996 Krakauer reached the summit of the mountain, but at the top came terrible events. The book is a chronological account of the lives and deaths of those who participated in the excursion. The first third of the book includes Everest s history, and he explains how deadly the voyage was for him. Krakauer was in a life or death situation when he was descending from the top of the mountain and so many lives were lost on Mt. Everest. I learned through Krakauer why the crew continues their rise even though the conditions are torturous and more life threatening with each step. Why they don’t give it up once they’ve lost feeling in their extremities, separated their ribs, lost their vision, can no longer breathe due to oxygen depleted air? Even in the end, Krakauer regrets going up to the mountain and admits that he wrote wrong accounts in the article. I really enjoyed this book because it was so controversial.
There is one major setting in this book, and that would be Mount Everest but there are many sub-settings also. The Camps, the Summit, and Krakauer s home in Seattle. The Camps was were the climbers stayed and rested before going on to the next camp. The Huddle right by camp four is where two climbers were found dead after a terrible storm. The Summit is the peak of the mountain and where numerous lives were killed. The summit of Mt. Everest is approximately 29,000 feet. After the tragedy at Everest, Krakauer went back home to Seattle. Krakauer described the journey as a poison . Many relatives and friends of the climbers that died were very upset with Krakauer s description of what happened, and so Krakauer apologizes in the very end.
In the book, Into Thin Air , you meet the members and guides of Jon Krakauer s team. Rob Hall was the leader and head guide of the expedition, as well as Scott Fischer, his guides, and some of his team members. Other people who lost or almost lost their lives were important on this voyage. People like Yasuko Namba, Andy Harris, Doug Hansen and others were great inspirations to Krakauer throughout the expedition.
Unfortunately, not everyone on the mountain was a good guy, you ll be living thanks to the dangers the teams encounter due to the inexperience, egos, arrogance, and vengefulness of the few bad apples. . Krakauer encounters many dangerous situations and becomes a person who motivates himself throughout the whole story and makes decision to write about this devastating experience probably made it hard for him since he also a person who slightly made it himself. For the survivors, Jon’s book is a road in which fathers, husbands, wives, sons, daughters, and other loved ones are portrayed as the heroes. Although some of the deceased’s relatives were upset with Krakauer, it would seem unjust because of the respectful way in which he portrays his fellow mountaineers.
Having never understood why people climb mountains or why people would put their lives in jeopardy, I read Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer. For those who don’t understand why on earth anyone would want to do something as dangerous as climbing, Into Thin Air answers that curiosity. Krakauer introduces his readers to the backgrounds and personalities of the main characters in his book. We can then better comprehend the different reasons people spend thousand of dollars and two or more months of their lives in hell on a mountain, freezing, injured, and almost dead just to get to the top of a mountain. This story is a symbol of strength, determination, and the will to achieve your goals that almost everyone can relate to. The novel made me really think how valuable your life is and you should live to the fullest, but don’t take advantage of it or don’t even take every day for granted.
Into Thin Air: Analysis of Sherpa and Their Impact
In Into Thin Air there is a division that is perhaps the most clearly visible of all. It is, perhaps, even more clear than distinction of client vs guide. Each character in the book falls into one of two categories; Sherpa or Westerner. The culture of Everest could be said to be the culture of the Sherpa, the strongly Buddhist people who live in the shadow of the mountain, many of whom make their living leading wealthy foreigners up the dangerous slopes to the top. However there is no small amount of controversy regarding the commercialization of Everest in recent years. In fact, in many ways, it would seem that the Buddhist culture of the Sherpas conflicts directly with the new role they have found as guides of the increasingly “touristy” climbers of Everest. However, upon a deeper inspection of both the tenets of Buddhism and the job these Sherpa do, nothing could be farther from the truth.
Regardless, we must first assess whether there is any “blame” to be placed upon the Sherpa for assisting in the commercialization of Everest. First, it is absolutely crucial to remember that Sherpa culture and religion is completely intertwined with their mountain environment:
“The Sherpas belong to the Nyingmapa sect of Buddhism. […] it emphasizes mysticism and incorporates shamanistic practices and local deities borrowed from the pre-Buddhist Bon religion. Thus, in addition to Buddha and the great Buddhist divinities, the Sherpa also believe in numerous gods and demons who are believed to inhabit every mountain, cave, and forest. These have to be worshiped or appeased through ancient practices that have been woven into the fabric of Buddhist ritual life. Indeed, it is almost impossible to distinguish between Bon practices and Buddhism.
Many of the great Himalayan mountains are worshiped as gods. The Sherpas call Mount Everest Chomolungma and worship it as the “Mother of the World.” Mount Makalu is worshiped as the deity Shankar (Shiva). Each clan recognizes mountain gods identified with certain peaks that are their protective deities.” (www.everyculture.com)
They object, often vocally, to climbers sleeping together on the mountain. There is an appearing possible contradiction here. Throughout Into Thin Air, Hall comments that “we would have absolutely no chance of getting to the summit of Everest without their help. […]Without the support of our Sherpas none of us has any chance of climbing the mountain.” (Krakauer 38) Although this is intended to be grateful towards them, it shows an interesting fact. Without Sherpa, fewer paying climbers would be able to climb Everest. In this aspect, Sherpas have contributed directly to the commercialization of Everest. Since the first summit of Tenzing and Hillary, Sherpas have been an invaluable tool for ascending Mount Everest. Yet for all their attempts to appease and respect the mountain, to some they have helped demean the mountain by putting in the reach of westerners who are able to climb the mountain only by virtue of wealth.
Of course, some of the changes in the identity of Everest were inescapable. After it’s discovery and eventual ascent, it became the preeminent goal of the most skilled mountaineers worldwide, a true honor. However, in 1985, Dick Bass, a wealthy Texan with little experience was guided to the Summit, and soon Everest became little more than a prize to be bought. Everest was made into a business, an accomplishment that could be bought by all but the least experienced of climbers. As Krakauer puts it; to many, especially those who had climbed Everest before hand, “Everest,[…] had been debased and profaned.” (Krakauer 22) In effect, this was a second change in the culture of Everest, the first being from Sherpa deity to mountaineer’s ultimate challenge. The Sherpas were instrumental in both of these transitions, offering their skills to any and all seeking to conquer the once unconquered peak. To the extent that Everest has been tamed, it could be said that the Sherpas helped subdue it. From there, it is no small leap to make that the Sherpas betrayed the long traditions of semi-worship the mountains.
However, all of these observations, which appear true on the surface, fail to truly hold water for a number of reasons. To start, while leading their clients the Sherpas stop at a number of temples and shrines along the way, encouraging the clients to experience Buddhism and maintain an air of respectfulness. Although thousands of clients have successfully summitted, the Sherpa have not forgotten the danger inherent in their job. In fact, one of the most saving facts regarding the Sherpas role on Everest is that they have not succeeded in taming the Mountain. The incredibly high levels of danger ensure that they remember that the Mountain must always be respected. Even if many westerners see Everest as an obstacle that can be bought for the right price, Sherpa culture still keeps in mind that the Mountain truly behaves as if it is a living entity that can and will punish climbers seemingly arbitrarily. To this end, the Sherpas display huge cultural and religious devotion to climbing the mountain in the most respectful way possible. Krakauer describes the way that the Sherpas build “beautiful, meticulously constructed stone chortens at Base Camp, one for each expedition.”(Krakauer 75) as a form of protection for the expeditions. Although the Sherpas have indirectly helped the commercialization of Everest, they also ensure that it is done in a way that maintains the Buddhist traditions as part of the experience of Everest.
Of course, one of the undeniable reasons that the Sherpa guide Everest is a need for money. This too, with a deeper reading of Buddhist teachings, is not in and of itself objectionable. Although Buddhism opposes excesses of materialism in the search for happiness, Buddhism acknowledges that a certain amount of material wealth is conducive to happiness, specifically wealth gained from just living. Guruge describes in his book that there are a number of “happinesses” that come from wealth. The most important for our purposes is that of Anavajjasukha , the happiness derived from blameless conduct. That is to say, Anavajjasukha is the happiness someone gets from making money doing something that is just and worthy, in effect all wealth not gained from illegal or otherwise immoral activities, such as prostitution, sales of weapons or crimes. (Gurude 86) In this way, Buddhism suggests that the wealth that the Sherpas make from their work is not anything wrong, but rather a tool to achieve happiness, in the form of enjoying the material wealth and the pride in the work that they do.
However, these are only arguments that suggests that they are not at fault. Upon consideration of what would happen if the Sherpas no longer offered their services, it becomes clear that they are actually performing a great service, one that is in complete harmony with the teachings of the Buddha.
As is established often throughout the book Into Thin Air, Everest makes people act in ways that seem insane. Summit fever, the irrational, all consuming desire to reach the summit, is a powerful force that grabs individuals both when they are close to the top and when they are thousands of miles away. For men like Edmund Hillary and Doug Harris, no obstacle, no risk is great enough to dissuade them. True fanatics will always be willing to brave whatever odds are thrown at them. It is easy to blame the Sherpas for the commercialization of Everest, for making it too easy, but in reality, Everest will always attract the ambitious and the foolish. The only effect that Sherpas have on these people is assisting them. The poor souls caught in the passionate net that Everest throws out will eventually find themselves in dangerous, occasionally lethal situations. When that time comes, the Sherpas are there to save their lives, the lives of their clients and friends to whom they feel a duty to. As shepherds of the mountain they function as lifeguards as well as guides, saving the climbers who will inevitably find trouble.
Sherpas play a central role in everything related to Everest; as such it is natural that they could seem responsible for some of the less seemly results of the commercialization thereof. However, when you take a deeper look at the traditions that Sherpas maintain on their climbs as well as the tenets of Buddhism, it becomes clear that nothing could be farther from the truth. Sherpas ensure that the experience of climbing the mountain does not lose its religious and cultural aspects while also saving lives. Although the current system of climbing Everest is not perfect it is clear that the Sherpas are part of the solution, not the problem.
A Documentary Book “Into Thin Air” by Jon Krakauer
“Into Thin Air” is about Jon Krakauer, who was originally hired to write an article about climbing Mount Everest for Outside Magazine, but then decided to experience the expedition himself due to dreaming about it since he was a kid. In the beginning, Krakauer states the dangers of Mount. Everest, especially the Khumbu Icefall. After the Khumbu Icefall’s first victim, Jake Breitenbach died on the icefall, eighteen other climbers died also.
The author’s purpose of stating on how many died on Khumbu icefall was to alarm the dangers, as well as to express his challenging adventure and his experience. As well as, Krakauer stated that at one point in time, people were paid so much money to climb the mountain, but many of those climbers never returned. One may confuse the author’s purpose of this article to persuade people to climb the mountain. One would personally think that the money was his final decision to climb the mountain, and in the end, it was accomplished.
Krakauer and his team were led by Kiwi Rob Hall. Krakauer explained how his team, as well as himself, suffered through this journey. Krakauer and his team lost major weight, their stamina was lowered, as well as their energy. Additionally, after Krakauer witnessed the 1996 Everest spring disaster in which twelve climbers eventually perished, Krakauer felt responsible to recall the tragedy as it was unfolded. After spending over a month living in close quarters atop of the world, Krakauer grew attached to Hall, one of his teammates, as well as other climbers from different expeditions, particularly those of Scott Fischer’s Mountain Madness team.
When disaster struck in early May, leaving nine of Krakauer’s friends and adventurers dead, Krakauer was devastated and also responsible for the lives of those lost. Krakauer’s hid his guilt and months later, he realized that he had inaccurately reported the death of guide Andy Harris. Confused and scarred by the experience, he decided to document the calamity in “Into Thin Air”, a book based on information from his experience and journalistic research, with the goal of imparting the lessons that he believes need to be learned in the tragedy’s aftermath. To go along with, in the beginning of “Into Thin Air, ”
Krakauer provides lots of facts about Mount. Everest and climbers who first climbed mountains. He did this by providing mountain climbing and Everest experience more understandable to his readers/audience. Krakauer also provides an excess amount of background information. The background information included explanations of the history of Everest and its early climber, climbing techniques, as well as logistical information regarding the climbers on his team and those from other expeditions. Krakauer relies heavily on imagery in order to accurately depict the Himalayas in print.
However, Krakauer’s main strategy takes shape in his scheme that he uses to climax the drama that took place on the upper reaches of the mountain. As he chronicles his journey from India all the way to his return to base camp after summiting, Krakauer’s tone and diction reflect his evolving sentiments throughout his journey. For example, the tone of the early chapters is one of excitement and nervousness, which quickly turns into fades into exhaustion and discomfort as he realizes the huge task before him.
An In Depth Rhetorical Analysis of Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer
In Jon Krakauer’s personal account of the 1996 Mt. Everest Disaster called “Into Thin Air”, Krakauer expresses his disbelief for the fatal accident through various shifts in tone from somber to solemn, or even a journalistic tone. Krakauer places the blame of the accident on the inexperience and conceit of his fellow climbers and guides. Krakauer also expresses his indignation that the commercialization of mountaineering, especially on Mt. Everest, has led to the deaths of many inexperienced climbers. Throughout his story, Krakauer attempts to convince the reader of these opinions through the use of various rhetorical strategies such as foreshadowing, allusions to personal anecdotes of other individuals who were on the mountain at that time, analogies that work to express the imagery of the scene on Everest, appeals to Krakauer’s ethics, exaggeration of certain elements to express his personal feeling of an occurrence, and simile and metaphors of actions and scenery in order to express an image to the reader or to get a feeling across to the reader. Such elements are only some of the various types of strategies Krakauer employs to show his true feeling of the occurrences in 1996 on Mt. Everest.
Within the first page of the book, Krakauer uses a flashback to give context to the reader. Krakauer does so without revealing any personal emotions or feelings in this account in order to set the reader up for his personal opinion on the tragedy later. In the first chapter, Krakauer uses this context to give a foreshadowing of the tragedy that was to come: “Nobody suspected that by the end of that long day, every minute would matter.” This foreshadowing entices the reader to find out what actually happened later in the book. Krakauer reserves the next chapter to tell the reader the history of Mt. Everest itself. He tells the history of Everest up until the moment he decided he wanted to become a mountaineer and climb Everest. After the history, he appeals to his authority by claiming the various mountains he had climbed before Everest. The established authority builds assurance that Krakauer is a reputable source for the occurrences on Everest.In the third chapter, Krakauer begins his account from the beginning of how he got to Everest and his expedition on the mountain. Krakauer sets the scene by revealing some imagery of his first sight of Everest, through the airplane window. Krakauer uses this moment to lightly foreshadow the future tragedy: “That I proposed to climb to the cruising altitude of an Airbus 300 jetliner struck me, at that moment, as preposterous, or worse. My hands felt clammy.” The use of foreshadowing in this chapter is not so much to show the reader what was to come, but rather to express the magnitude of what Krakauer was about to do. Using a comparison between the cruising altitude of a plane and the height of Everest shows how hefty a task it was and engages the reader into continuing their reading to find out what will happen when Krakauer climbs Everest.
Krakauer, in the rest of the chapter, tells the story of meeting his guides and fellow climbers upon his arrival in Kathmandu. He continues this narrative, until the end of the chapter when he, similar to the last chapters ending, gives a light foreshadow of the events that have yet to occur, by claiming that a climber must have trust in the guides when climbing Everest or any large expedition. Krakauer shows his concern over the fact that Rob Hall may not have chosen the best clients for the expedition that they were about to go on. Again, this sets the scene for the tragedy that will happen towards the end of the book. This establishes the doubt in trusting the guides and climbers that the reader will gain throughout Krakauer’s various strategies that he uses to show his indignation of the events at Everest.
Throughout the next couple chapters, Krakauer continues describing the scenery of Everest and its surrounding areas to the readers, using the imagery to help the reader understand the vastness of the Himalayas so the reader can understand what Krakauer and his team went through. Krakauer begins to set the scene for the expedition up Everest itself by using the acclimatization trips as a bridge between the calm and the storm. Throughout such bridge, Krakauer’s tone shifts from ambivalent in that he doesn’t express much emotion in regards to the events that he will have to write about soon, to a caustic, disparaging tone that represents his sorrow from the actions that led to the deaths of 8 individuals on his expedition. This tonal shift works to express the true feeling that Krakauer felt throughout the expedition, realizing that he could have been one of those who died. The reader will see that he is showing regret and gets an appeal of emotion that works to engage the reader into feeling doubt for the deaths that happened there.
In the climax of Krakauer’s story, he is descending the mountain as the massive storm is hitting and fellow climbers are behind him. He was lucky to make it down quick enough that he wasn’t caught in the deep part of the storm. Krakauer symbolizes this event with a strong chapter concluding sentence: “Any impulse I might have felt toward self-congratulation was extinguished by overwhelming apprehension about the long, dangerous descent that lay ahead.” Krakauer, at this point, has acknowledged the possibility of death, that he might become too exhausted to continue. This narrative that Krakauer is expressing is just the tip of the iceberg of what is to come later in that day. This sentence expresses that by signaling that something terrible may come in the future. The reader, of course, already knows that devastation is going to come and this continues to emphasize the doubt expressed previously for the tragedy that will happen soon.
Krakauer continues by temporarily letting his personal story go and telling the story of the other climbers who were meant to summit with him. He was one of the earliest to the summit, so there were still many after him who should’ve been there around the same time. Krakauer’s fellow climber Neal Beidleman stuck with Krakauer but became worried for the other climbers as they were not going to make it in time for the 2:00 turnaround. This personal anecdote that Krakauer gives works to be the beginning of the end. This is right before the storm pushes in and after that, the only thing that separates them from death is turning around and going quickly. This is the type of narrative Krakauer is pushing by telling the story of his fellow climbers. This creates a moody scene for the reader, as Krakauer will soon have to tell the story of tragedy and fighting to survive rather than that of him just climbing up a mountain.
Krakauer sustains this type of story for the rest of the chapter, telling the anecdote of Beidleman dragging various climbers through the storm, trying to get to safety. But Krakauer, safe in Camp 4, began to get worried about the missing climbers who had yet to come to the Camp. Stuart Hutchison, who was at Camp 4 with Krakauer, went out six times to search for the climbers, to no avail. Krakauer now tells a somber story of how the climbers died or survived. This emotional appeal impacts the reader and further convinces the reader of the doubt Krakauer had with the inexperienced guides and climbers. This dissuades the reader from holding trust in the guides yet engages the reader in further reading the book to find out what could possibly go worse. And as more and more people are lost in the storm, Krakauer begins to change the narrative from storytelling to a lesson of ethics and trust.
Krakauer, in the last chapter, reflects upon the mishaps and mistakes of his guides as well as his partners who were climbing with him. He uses the 8 lives lost to show that regardless of your will to do anything, at Everest, the mountain has the last say as to whether you live or die. “Guy handed me a beer, Caroline gave me a hug, and the next thing I knew I was sitting on the ice with my face in my hands and tears streaking my cheeks, weeping like I hadn’t wept since I was a small boy.” Krakauer expresses his devastation with what happened on Everest through making a comparison from his young age to now, in order to show how truly saddened he was. In the midst of this pain though, Krakauer finds a way to express some comic relief, when he arrived at his hotel in Kathmandu, he bought some marijuana and “rolled a joint, smoked it down to nothing, rolled a second fatty”. This humor doesn’t last very long though, as Krakauer moves on to again, crying until he can’t anymore. His method of coping with the stress he got from what he experienced on Everest didn’t seem to be very effective as it just got him to cry again. This shows that sometimes, no matter what you do, you will be stuck with the pain of the past, and you just have to move on past it. This message relays to the reader in an indirect way, the reader will feel Krakauer’s “survivors guilt” and understand the consequences of mistakes and inexperience.
Throughout Krakauer’s book, he tells a personal account of what happened, to his knowledge and to the accounts of various other climbers, on Everest in May 1996. Krakauer’s tone shifts throughout the entire book and the mood of the story is changed from a blank mood to a somber mood that stems from the deaths and the guilt that Krakauer felt from the disaster. Krakauer employs various metaphors and simile in order to show the guilt he held for not helping the others and for “surviving, while so many others died.” The sheer imagery that Krakauer expresses is enough to put the reader into the mind of Krakauer, to understand what he was going through, and what the other, less fortunate climbers had to go through. Through a combination of well-phrased sentences, deep imagery, varied tone and mood, and allusions to other climbers accounts and feelings throughout the expedition, Krakauer is able to convey his feeling of guilt and doubt of the occurrence to the reader, making it as if the reader were truly inside the story. To understand the true depth and feeling Krakauer was experiencing, a reader would have to literally go through what he experienced; however, Krakauer gives a glimmer of what it would feel like, to go through the 1996 Everest Disaster.