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# Isaac Newton

## The Life and Times of Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton is a widely known name, but most don’t actually know anything about him. Newton had a very interesting life, and helped advance the theory of gravity. Without Newton and his strange life, our knowledge of gravity may not have been as advanced as it is today.

Even from his birth on January fourth in Woolsthorpe, England, Sir Isaac Newton had many hardships. His father died before he was born, and newborn Newton was not expected to survive his first day of life.(Westfall, 2018) Soon after his birth, his mother left to a new town with a new husband, forcing Newton to live with his grandparents. These early hardships caused him to have many different physiological problems and violent tendencies. When Newton’s mother returned after her new husband died, they moved to a farm. Newton wasn’t cut out for rural life, so his mother enrolled him into a school that would get him ready for Cambridge.

Newton enrolled into Cambridge to get a degree in law, but history tells us that’s not what he came out with. From the get go, Newton stood out from his other classmates, being older due to his education being interrupted for significant period of time, as well as getting funding from the school. Even though he should have been grouped with lesser class due to this, his intelligence and individualism allowed him to fit in with the higher ups. Similar to others, when Newton began his higher education, he began studying Aristotle and Rene Descartes even though they were not part of the lesson plan. Using these two as role models, Newton’s scientific career began. Even though the things he made here would go unpublished, they would help further his career, and allow him to grow in his scientific career.

When Cambridge closed due to disease, Newton made some of his most significant discoveries.(Weisstein, 2018) It was during this time that Newton produced the essay Of Colours, which talked about universal gravity and how it affected different objects in space, such as the moon, Earth, and sun. Soon after this, Newton was elected into a spot on a fellowship at the recently reopened school. When Isaac Barrow moved on from his spot in the fellowship, Newton took his place. After taking this new position of power, Newton rewrote his essay and made it into a novel titled Opticks.

Opticks expanded on the theories of universal gravity, while also talking about concepts of lights, rainbows, colors, prisms, and spectrums. He tested to see if all colors could be turned into mechanic images. Even with all the testing and such that Newton did, there is no evidence that these findings improved his image as a teacher. In 1675, Newton heard that somebody finally accepted his theories of colors, Hooke, and he decided to continue testing different thoughts and ideas that he had in his head dealing with how color and light works. After Newton published a new version of Opticks, Hooke claimed that Newton stole ideas from him. The problem was solved, but not without revealing the tension between the two men.

Between 1675 and 1679 Newton worked by himself to study the universal law of gravity, as well as lay down the groundwork for calculus.The major thing he tested at this time, was how the moon changed from Earth or the sun and if it actual did change at all. In 1679, Newton and Hooke went back to working together on the universal law of gravity, even though tension still remained. They went about doing this by testing different ways the universal law of gravity could work using either chemicals, electricity, or even light. Thanks to these studies, Newton was able to figure out how a multitude of different things worked in space such as falling debris and such.

Newton at this time began to develop calculus. Even though it was on accident, he still had the discovery made before a man by the name of Leibniz discovered independent calculus. This would later cause arguments between the two and their individual followers.

Even though Newton was a scientist, he still had faith in God, and was a strong Protestant. So when James II became king, it shook up Newton and his life at the university, since James II only wanted Roman Catholics in power. Newton believed that this drastic change was an attack on the University of Cambridge.(University of Saint Andrews, 2000) When the king began to attempt the give Catholics power they did not earn with a degree, Newton urged his peers to stay with the laws, and the king wouldn’t be able to destroy what they had made of the school.

After this point, Newton’s life was full of rewards as well as hardships. He was elected as Warden, the Master of the mint, a government job that made him very wealthy. He stayed at Cambridge, until he worked at the mint for 3 years. 2 years later, he was elected president of the Royal Society, being elected every year until his death. Along with these accomplishments, Newton was knighted by the queen at the time Anne. Newton was the first scientist to have this honor, as it had been seen as a anti-religious affair before. Even with all these accomplishment, it would only be natural for newton to have some sort of hardship. This time it was over calculus. Newton and Leibniz, argued about who actually created calculus, causing them to get into many debates and arguments. Often, Newton would get so angry, that his assistant would go and hide just in case he completely lost control.

In his last and final years, Newton republished works such as Opticks in latin, as well as new english versions and second editions. During his duties as president, due to his old age, from time to time he would sleep in the meetings, but they still continued to elect him. In the last few years, he lived with Catherine Conduitt ,his niece, and her husband.

Sir Isaac Newton is a very famous scientist that has helped shape the world and how we perceive it today. Newton’s work in figuring out how the universal law of gravity affects the planets and everything else in existence. Also his help in the creation of calculus, has advanced our knowledge of math, and how we can calculate different things in the universe. His ideas of light and colors changed how we saw the relationship between them and physical movement. Newton also proved it is able to be in the field of science and still believe in God, being a Protestant himself, and still sticking to it while many of his peers did not. Lastly, Newton’s hardships allowed us to study the world as we do today, and even though Newton was very wealthy in his old age, we still must not forget the sacrifices he made and respect him for what he did to help advance science in the world then and even today.

## Isaac Newton Life

Sir Isaac Newton is deemed one of the most influential, preeminent scientists in history. He contributed to many different aspects of science throughout his successful life, and made an impact that will last forever.

Newton was brought into the world on December 25, 1642 in Woolsthorpe, England. He was born prematurely, and was very ill and weak. He wasn’t even expected not to live. Although he lived, he did not have a stable home or relationship with his parents. His father died before his birth, and his mother remarried when he was just a young child. This resulted in Newton being sent to live with his grandparents.

At age 12, Newton was brought to King’s School in a nearby town. He resided in the local house of apothecary while studying at the school. Newton drew interest in the the library of chemicals that was there, but soon after was removed from the school by his mother. He was sent to work on the family farm, where he was expected to take over one day in the future. However, Newton soon learned that it was not his talent. Fortunately, his uncle could see his academic potential, and encouraged Newton to continue his education at Cambridge University instead of continuing the work on the farm. After many struggles in his early life personally and academically, Newton graduated from college.

Although he was striving to obtain a master’s degree, Newton had no choice but to return back to the farm. While there, he worked on varying studies and experiments. In 1666, while on the farm, he noticed an apple fall from a tree, and this brought on much curiosity about the force that caused it. Initially, Newton believed that the apple fell because matter is attracted to matter. However, he then made the theory that the rate in which the apple fell directly related to the force that the earth applied upon it. Along with that, he proposed the inverse square law. This law explains that force decreases based on the square of distance from the earth’s center. These viewpoints were only the beginning.

After making these predictions, Newton then made a daring hypothesis. He suggested that maybe the force that was working on the apple was the same force that was responsible for keeping the moon in orbit around the earth. This was very important at the time, for most believed in the theory of Aristotle. This theory stated that heavenly bodies abided by different laws that objects on earth. Newton, however, believed that all bodies were acted upon by the same force, no matter where they existed at. This experience in the apple led to Newton’s creation of the laws of universal gravitation in the future.

Newton continued his work on this subject, but continually came up short. This began to frustrate and disappoint him, for he needed information that was not necessarily available to him. Also, he was never positive if his calculations were correct, which made it very difficult to continue work. Because of these reasons, Newton decided to set aside the work on gravity and take a break from it, which lasted for fifteen years.

During this time, Newton explored other topics that brought interest to him. There was a book written by Robert Boyle explaining color that brought much interest to him. Newton decided then to begin experimenting with light. He performed many different tests involving light. One very significant investigation involved a beam of sunlight being passed through a prism. Newton found that when going through the prism, light refracted and and displayed the colors of the rainbow. Then, he passed the same light through a second prism and found that the light recombined. Using this, Newton discovered that all colors existed within the white light. Newton concluded that light was composed of streams of particles that moved through an invisible substance. Although this particular theory was later disproved, Newton gained much attention from the world of science throughout, and it was kept alive for around a century.

As Newton had wanted to do initially, he returned to Cambridge to earn his master’s degree in 1667. Here, he began to pick up with work he had done when on the farm. In 1668, he assembled a reflecting telescope, which used mirrors in order to reflect and magnify the light of objects large distances away. This telescope was a major advancement from previous telescopes that had been made. It produced clear photographs and had much more power and capability than the others. Even today, the telescopes that are used by astronomers are modeled after the reflecting telescope that Newton created. He believed his design was good, so he presented it to the Royal Society, which is a scientific organization within England. The people it consisted of were so impressed with Newton’s invention, that they decided to elect him to the organization in 1672.

Soon after being elected into the society, Newton spoke on his findings from the experiment with light. While most viewed it as interesting and important, one particular scientist, named Robert Hooke, dismissed it as irrelevant and unimportant. After Newton found out about this, he sent a rather angry message to Hooke, which would soon go on to be published in the periodical of the Royal Society. This only caused a feud between the two to grow.

The dislike between the two reached its peak when Newton published his infamous law of universal gravitation. Simply stated, this law suggests that bodies of mass attract each other with a force that relies directly on the product of their individual masses and inversely as the squared distance between them. This intricate law brought much insight into the many mechanics of the world. This law became a guide for the future development of physical law.

Newton’s law first derived from the laws of planetary motion by Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer and mathematician. He also built off of the observations of Galileo, declaring that gravity is a universal property within all matter. Newton also concluded that the force exerted by gravity extended to infinity, bringing the universe together. Mathematically, his law of gravitation is represented as F = (G)(m1m2) /r^2. F standing for force, G standing for gravity, m standing for the masses, and r standing for radius. His law of gravitation proved to be effective and precise. Although he had a formula, he wasn’t positive about everything. The author of the author states, Newton admitted having no fundamental explanation for the mechanism of gravity itself. In Principia Newton stated, … I have been unable to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena, and I feign no hypotheses (regarding its mechanism)’ (Shlager, Lauer, 2001). Regardless of this struggle, it was useful enough to show that gravity was a force working upon and accelerating planets within their orbits. This law was a descriptive and predictive tool that helped prove the existence of God and that no intervention was needed to bring movement to the heavens.

Newton’s law made an exceptionally large impact throughout the world to this day. The author of the article explains that, Using the law allowed physicists and astronomers to bridge the relationship between cause and effect with regard to falling bodies and orbiting planets (Shlager, Lauer, 2001).

Newton also created the laws of motion, which is continuously taught within schools and other places throughout the world. These three laws describe motion within varying bodies, and how they interact. The first law simply explains that an object that is at rest will remain that way, and an object in motion will remain moving unless acted upon by another force. The second law is simply written in a mathematical formula. This formula is F=ma (Force= mass x acceleration). Finally, the third law states that for an action, there is always an equal and an opposite reaction. These three laws have been proved valid for centuries, and are still used to prove differing occurrences.

Newton experienced many struggles throughout his life. He was expected to do things that he did not necessarily have talents in, and sometimes he struggled within school. This never stopped him from striving to do significant things within his life. He changed the world of science forever, and will forever be talked about as one of the most influential, successful scientists in history.

## Isaac Newton – Philosopher, Mathematician and Physicist

English natural philosopher, mathematician, and physicist Isaac Newton was born prematurely on Christmas in 1642 (using the old Julien calendar) in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. He passed away in his sleep on March 20th, 1726 in Kensington London, United Kingdom. Newton’s father, Isaac (also named Isaac) had passed away before he was born.

Newton was left in the care of his grandmother when his mother remarried. Isaac received an education at the King’s School in Grantham where he was taught Latin and Greek. Newton attended Trinity College in Cambridge. His main influences were Rene Descartes, Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler among many others.

Perhaps the most famous of Newton’s creations are the laws of motion. The first law says that Objects at rest remain at rest and objects in motion remain in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Newton’s second law states that Force equals mass times acceleration (f=ma). His third law reads, For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. These laws of motion have laid the foundation for classical mechanics. Newton speculated white light was a composite of all the colors of the spectrum and that white light was made of particles.

In addition, Isaac Newton wrote several books such as Opticks, Method of Fluxions, Newton’s Philosophy of Nature, Arithmetica Universalis, The Queries, and The Correspondence of Isaac Newton that were influential the fields they encompassed. One of Newton’s most famous books is Principa which details almost all the fundamental principles of physics, except energy. Newton also developed crucial theories of calculus. His earliest significant public scientific accomplishment was designing and building a telescope that was reflective in the year 1668. Isaac proved his conjecture of color and light using his telescope.

The supposed inspiration behind the creation of the theory of gravity was the falling apple. In addition, he is credited with the development of the laws of planetary motion. Newton assisted in leading the rebellion against King James II’s attempts to reintroduce Catholic teaching at Cambridge. Isaac was designated to represent Cambridge in Parliament. He interacted with well-known intellectuals in London including John Locke. In 1696, he achieved the governmental position of warden of the Mint.

Isaac Newton made many important contributes throughout his lifetime to mathematics and science that have formed the basis of these fields. Isaac Newton influenced many great scholars such as Joseph Raphson and Albert Einstein. In conclusion, Newton was a big contributor to modern science and mathematics and played a big role with his discoveries in the Scientific Revolution.

## Successful and Sad Life of Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton led a successful but sad life. He accomplished many educational practices but never really succeed in the family life. His mother left him at an early age which left an emotional mark on him that effected his later years.

Growing up his family helped him through school, where he eventually graduated and went on to college. Although having no father figure he still matured into a bright young man. During his early life he did not connect with other children, and did not have any significant relationships. Isaacs’s main focus was his studies and education which really affected his relationships. But his early life, education, accomplishments, faith and eventually death all positively affected him in his life. Newton influenced America’s mathematic history that set the nation up for success. (132)

Newton’s father, also named Isaac Newton, died three months before he was born, which left his mother to raise him on her own. He was also a premature child and was not expected to live. Isaac was born on January 4, 1643 in Woolsthrope Lancashire, England. His mother, Hannah, left him to marry a reverend named Barnabus Smith. Leaving Newton in the hands of his grandmother, she continued to raise him until his mother returned. At the age of 12 his mother returned with three children after her husband had died. She pulled him from school to work as a farmer just like his father did. But that did not last long so his uncle helped pay for him to return to school. (123)

Isaac finished his basic studies at school, but was now ready to advance to college. His Uncle encouraged him to enroll in The University of Cambridge Trinity College. Newton waited tables and took care of the wealthy students bedrooms in order to afford his tuition fees. After some time he was able to secure a room with a local student who introduced him to chemistry. In 1667 he was elected a minor fellow at Trinity College. From there he began to construct his first ever reflecting telescope in 1668. He then went on to receive a Masters of Art degree in 1669 before turning the age of 27. Soon after, he took over as Cambridge’s Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, and while working, discovered a new concept of nature. Graduated with honors, this won him the title of scholar, with four years of financial support. 1671 he was asked to give a demonstration of the telescope to the Royal Society and was elected to it the following year. His teaching in standard curriculum at Cambridge ended after three years. Two of Newton’s many discoveries were the Three Laws of Motion and the Reflecting Telescope in which he began to develop while at Cambridge. (200)

Along with Newton’s discoveries at Cambridge he also discovered many things after leaving. He created calculus; with this advancement in mathematics he was able to formulate many other inventions. Beside that he created the well known Three Laws of Motion which laid a foundation for classical mechanics. Newton was also the second scientist to be knighted. Isaac invented the first reflecting telescope in 1668 which helped engineer space research. What are unknown are his inventions that failed, he may have discovered many things but gave up because it failed. His sharp mind and knowledge allowed him to focus and work by himself, he spent years developing and fine tuning each invention. (111)

Understandably his faith is not talked about much, as many scientist back then did not believe in God. He took interest in the subject but never pursued it. His interest brought him to the studies of Daniel and St. John, he spent much time reading and studying the chapters. Today there are books he wrote on the studies relating to ancient chronology. With his studies he proved the Trinitarian passage with latter-day corruption. Newton went on to discover the Hooks Theory. One thing Newton is known for is writing over 1.3 million words on the biblical subject. Although research cannot say for sure whether Newton was a believer, but it does show he was not against it. (116)

Although Newton had a successful life he did not succeed in the relationship part. He never had any friends, never married nor had any kids. His life was greatly impacted when his mother left him at an early age. In his later years he dealt with many health problems. By 80 years old he experienced digestion issues which caused him mobility issues. Newton spent his final years living in Cranbury Park with his niece and nephew. Isaac became one of the most famous men in Europe, but sadly was never really recognized until after his death. March 1727 he experienced abdominal pain in which he blacked out from. Several days later, after never regaining consciousness Sir Isaac Newton died March 31, 1727 at the age of 84. (124)

Undoubtedly, Newton influenced America’s mathematic history that set the nation up for success. His early life, education, accomplishments, faith and eventually death all positively affected him in his life. Even though his life was depressing he succeeded well academically. Newton’s advancements in science and in mathematics greatly impacted today’s education. Although he was never appreciated or rewarded when he was alive, he is recognized today. Again research cannot say much for his faith, we only hope he found his way and is living in paradise now. Our nation’s education and discoveries would have never been possible without the hard work of Sir Isaac Newton. (104)

## The Eternal Contributions of Isaac Newton

At the peak of his scientific tenure, Sir Isaac Newton said, We build too many walls and not enough bridges. This quote was the basis for how he lived his life; building bridges of knowledge between the known and unknown. As a result of this philosophy, Newton became an acclaimed mathematician and physicist, known for contributions such as calculus, where he built upon the geometric and algebraic works of great mathematicians in the past to create a more complex way of manipulating variables in order to explain more advanced processes of nature.

Replacing obsolete methods of thinking was a common theme in Newton’s research, as seen in his research on optics and even classical mechanics and gravitation. And when it seemed he had accomplished everything possible in the world of physics, Newton even delved into chemistry, helping form a basis of special religious studies in such ideas as dimensions and alchemy. As a result of these studies and seemingly infinite accomplishments, Newton has been credited as the father of modern science for almost 300 years.

Like most other great researchers, Newton’s life started out difficult. He was born prematurely and barely survived his birth and first few months. Just to add to the struggle, Isaac Newton Sr. died, and Newton Jr’s mother then abandoned him and left to live with his grandmother and begin to lead a new life. Eventually she was widowed again by her second husband (Reverend Barnabas Smith) who Newton despised, and according to Milo Keynes, Newton even threatened my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over (Keynes 300). At about this time, Newton’s mother also determined that Isaac’s destiny was to become a farmer, based on familial traditions. Fortunately, he failed at it, and his mother had no other choice than to send him to school. Thus, in June 1661, Newton was admitted to Trinity College in Cambridge. Although he was first admitted as a subsizar, where he paid for his education, Newton was quickly awarded a scholarship and could now fully concentrate on his studies. According to the biography in his famed text, Principia, In college, he learned extensively about the teachings of Aristotle, along with, the moderns by Kepler, Cavaleri, Roberval, Fermat and Wallis (Newton). He was absolutely fascinated with the former, becoming obsessed with mechanical philosophy and inspired to expand upon the current knowledge of the field. Thus, after graduating, Newton spent the next years at his home in Woolsthorpe developing his theories of optics, calculus, and gravitation.

After Newton graduated, in the mid 1660’s, the most distinguished scientists were directing all of their focus to studying light, or optics, and advancing the reflecting telescope. According to Darrigol’s, A History of Optics, Newton, having applied himself to the grinding of optic glasses of other figures than spherical, experienced the impracticability of these lenses and determined their defects, similarly to those of refracting telescopes, were because of a dispersion of light into colors. This research was the basis for Newton’s eventual formulation of the Theory of Color. His notes in Hydrostatics, Optics, Sound and Heat suggest that he used a prism and current research on the multicolor spectrum to show that color light does not change its properties by separating; thus, regardless if the light is transmitted, reflected, or scattered, the light will always remain the same color. Asked to prove this concept, Newton rode his current momentum and constructed a telescope using not lenses, but rather reflective mirrors.The design was the first known functioning reflective telescope. Now using his Newtonian Telescope in his studies, Newton was able to conjecture that observed light was composed of particle, which were all refracted by accelerating into differing media (Newton). He published this observation in his book Optiks and, although unknowingly, set the stage for the development of quantum mechanics and photons some 250 years later.

After his study of optics, Newton devoted himself to advancing the world of mathematics, even described to, distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied (Ball). His greatest contribution to mathematics was, without any doubt, calculus. Even in college, Newton saw the current state of the mathematical world as obsolete and wanted to expand upon geometry and algebra. As a result, Newton formulated infinitesimal calculus as a way to express variables as fluxions or differentials as early as 1666. He also formulated an expression to find the area under a curve by factoring in a momentary increase at a point. As a result, the revolutionary fundamental theorem of calculus was formed. To give his newfound calculus a more complex framework, Newton further explored instantaneous motion and infinitesimals in his book Methodus Fluxionem et Serierum Infinitarum. However, according to James Stewart’s Calculus: Concepts and Contexts, Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism (Stewart). As a result, Newton often delayed his publication and eventually became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over credit in the development of calculus. Although it was proved that both Newton and Leibniz invented calculus independently, Newton accused Leibniz of plagiarizing his works, dismissing Leibniz’s works and sending him into the depths of infamy. Newton was quickly establishing himself as one of the most distinguished scientists in recent times, with his findings showing prominence even today.

In 1679, Newton finally rekindled his interest on celestial mechanics and gravitation with the goal of fully incorporating the effects of gravity into Kepler’s findings on planetary motion. To start his research, Richard Westfall’s Never at Rest states that Newton called out to Robert Hooke and the Royal Society. His correspondence with the former inspired Newton to observe comets, and Newton was quickly able to prove that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (Newton). These relatively crude observations on planetary motion set the basis for Newton’s most famous publication, Principia. Principia, published in 1687, stated the three universal laws of motion, together describing the relationship between the forces acting upon an object and the object’s motion, which laid the entire basis for classical mechanics. Even further, these ideas of motion and gravitas (gravity) greatly inspired the classical technologies that were created during the Industrial Revolution. Now, all of Newton’s previous discoveries of calculus and accelerating motion came together into one new law: the Universal Theory of Gravitation. Because Newton was able to conquer the mysterious, previously deemed supernatural, power known as gravity, he matched, even surpassed the likes of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo.

After mastering the entire field of physics, Newton ventured into a less exact science; Biblical interpretation. Known to follow a Christian faith from the very early stages of his life, much of Newton’s work later in his life were based on radical interpretations of theology, especially the occult studies of alchemy. Newton was known to be deeply fascinated with all forms of natural, physical, and material sciences, with this interest leading to some of the greatest contributions in science. However, Newton also had his fair share of controversial ideas, described perfectly by The Chymistry of Isaac Newton; Yet there is another, more mysterious side to Newton that is imperfectly known, a realm of activity that spanned some 30 years of his life, although he kept it largely hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues (Indiana University). Although there were several previous frameworks developed to understand the physical world, Chymistry was still very underdeveloped. Newton tried to contribute to use his expert experimentation skills to further explain the underwhelmed field of science, but according to the Strange, Secret History of Isaac Newton’s Papers, his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism (Mann). In fact, an abundance of Newton’s notes indicated his great interest of the Philosopher’s Stone, a legendary substance with the supposed capability of turning crude metals into gold, dubbing it the elixir of life. Mann remarks that a surprising 1/10 of Newton’s works were devoted to finding this elixir. But it seems Newton wasted his time meddling in such matters, as it was not until several decades after Newton’s era that modern and analytical chemistry were even formulated, with the first experiments being conducted by Antoine Lavoisier in the mid 1770s.

Isaac Newton was an unbelievable polymath, transcending time with his seminal contributions to optics, mathematics, and gravity. Although his life proved to be difficult at first, the Englishman surpassed all expectations by going to college and eventually explaining the majority of the current problems faced in physical sciences, streamlining the way for one of the most important events in European history; the Industrial Revolution. Although not all of his research was the most ethical and realistic, he set the basis for the entirety of modern physics still used today, almost 300 years after his death. Publishing his studies in books like Principia, Newton was able to break down the workings of the vast solar system into simple equations, literally changing the way people saw and interacted with, not only objects around them, but the universe itself. By doing so, Newton surpassed all of the genius minds in history to become the one and only greatest scientist of all time.

## Sir Isaac Newton Biography

Sir Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 in Lincolnshire, England. He was a famous English Physicist and Mathematician. He made many contributions in the areas of physics, mathematics, astronomy, and science during the period of the Scientific Revolution.

His greatest contribution and what he is known best for would be Newton’s Laws. The first law states that, Every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external force.(www.britannica.com/biography/Isaac-Newton) The second law states that, The acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables–the net force acting upon the object, and the mass of the object. Newton’s third law states that, For every action, there is a equal and opposite reaction.(www.NewtonsLaw.com)

Newton laid the foundations for classical mechanics. In it, he formulated his Three Laws of Motion, which were inspired from Johann Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion and his own mathematical description of gravity. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. These laws are important because they affect us as a society in everything we do and see in the world. It explains how we don’t float out up into the sky, how cars work, how water flows and basically just how everything around us moves. We base most things off of force and it is important to know what type of force is involved. For example, gravity, friction, or tension. He set this foundation and this theory to help others understand more about motion and the theory of gravity. He formed the basis of modern physics. In 1687 he published, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), most often known as Principia . It is one of the most influential books of physics.

He attended Cambridge University, where his first three years he studied basic curriculum. Although, he was very interested in advanced science. He liked to read from modern philosophers of that time. But during his younger years, that’s when he was way more interested in school. When he was enrolled in school he was introduced to the world of chemistry. His mom took him out of school at the age of 12. Her plan was to take him out of school and make him a farmer and make his first priority the farm. Newton failed miserably, as he found farming monotonous. Newton was soon sent back to King’s School to finish his basic education(www.Biography.com) He found that there was no point of farming and that it was doing him no good. After highschool, Isaac was really intelligent and really curious. After highschool Isaac wanted to attend college. Isaac’s uncle, a graduate from the University of Cambridge’s convinced isaac’s mother for his enrollment. Newton enrolled in a program similar to a work-study in 1661. Isaacs work study was that he would clean tables and take care of wealthier students.(www.Biography.com)

Three years have gone by, and by that time, the scientific-revolution was already in full go. By that time Isaac was already taught the standard curriculum, but was fascinated by the advanced content. On his spare time he would read books and learn more about the modern philosophers. Later on throughout the years, Isaac discovered the new concept of nature that provided the framework for the Scientific Revolution. Newton graduated without honors, his efforts won him the title of scholar and four years of financial support for future education. Then years after, the Great plague was going around in Europe and had forced Cambridge to close down. 2 years later Isaac returned to Cambridge and came across Nicholas Mercrator and read his published book. Years go by and Isaac was more of a figure then he was a physicist.

## Citations

Isaac Newton. Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 2 Aug. 2017,

www.biography.com/people/isaac-newton-9422656.

Newtons Law of Motion. NASA, NASA, 5 May 2015, www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/newton.html.

Westfall, Richard S. Sir Isaac Newton. Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclop?¦dia Britannica, Inc., 3 Oct. 2018, www.britannica.com/biography/Isaac-Newton.

## Isaac Newton – Facts and Accomplishments

Also known as Sir Isaac Newton, Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. Newton was an only son of a farmer named Isaac Newton. However, his father had passed away three months before the birth of Newton and it was said that he was not supposed to live.

During this time, Newton’s family was struggling financially. Due to their poor situation, when Newton became three, his mother, Hannah Ayscough Newton, married minister of the name Barnabas Smith. When Newton’s mother remarried to this man, she left Newton to his maternal grandmother. This event in Newton’s life left an internal scar in his heart that created insecurities, obsession in his works, and defending merits with unjustifiable behavior. While his mother was away he beginning his education at the King’s School in Grantham. Once he became the age of twelve, his mother returned with the death of her second husband and pulled Newton out of school to have him become a farmer like his biological father. However, Newton found farming tedious and was not skilled in this area.

He was then sent back to school to finish the education he had started. As Newton showed natural, academic abilities, his uncle was convinced to have Newton enter the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College. He learned and discovered many things at this college and finally, after many years, his work was noticed by the mathematicians. Newton was a physicist and a mathematician that revolutionized the development of science. One of his most influential works towards physics was his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. This book contained concepts in physics excluding energy that helped to Newton to discover and elaborate on the law of motion as well as the theory of gravity. The three basic laws of motion were written inside of this book and helped to forge his theories. Throughout Newton’s life, he theorized and discovered many things of motion, optics, and mathematics. Later he was credited for developing theories in the well-known math level, Calculus. Towards Newton’s final years, he was still single and did not have many friends. Newton passed away on March 31, 1927, at the age of 84 because of digestion problems.

Newton’s contributed to the development of math and science. He discovered the math level known as Calculus. His work first began when he tried to discover the way in order to find the slope on a curve at any given point to a slope that was constantly different. When calculating the derivative to find the slope he came up with methods called method of fluxions and method of fluent. This two methods became later known as differentiation and integration which later helped to formulate Calculus’ first fundamental theorem. The binomial theorem is another contribution of Newton’s work. This theorem describes the expansion of powers in a binomial. He also contributed to the theory of finite differences and a more efficient method of finding approximations to roots of a function. While Newton contributed to many things in math he also contributed to science. He had many theories in the fields of optics and gravity. One of his theories was that the entire light spectrum was in white light and also that it was made up of particles. His discovery of the three laws of motion helped to explain almost every motion in the universe such as how the sun’s gravitational pull keeps the planets in orbit.

Newton’s work is important because it grounded the basis of Calculus and he expanded the world of science greatly. His discovery of gravity laid the foundation of a greater future for science. Although both of his works were edited and corrected, he began something revolutionary for the future of math and science.

## What is Isaac Newton Famous For?

Sir Isaac Newton is pretty famous, and many kids and adults till this day still learn about the things he has made theories.

He made many theories on gravity and its effects on astronomical objects. He first learned about gravity by the famous falling apple then he started researching and studying. Newton discovered a great deal about calculus and even published a book on it eventually, he became a mathematics professor.

Newton is considered one of the most important scientists in history. During his lifetime, Newton developed the theory of gravity, the laws of motion ( which became the basis for physics),a new type of mathematics called calculus, and made breakthroughs in the area of optics such as the reflecting telescope.

Sir Isaac Newton was many things a astronomer, mathematician, and a scientist he was born in woolsthorpe, England on Jjanuary 4, 1643. Isaac attended school where he was an adequate student.

At one point his mother tried to take him out of school so he could help on the farm, but Isaac had no interest in becoming a farmer and was soon back at school.In 1661, Isaac began to attend college at Cambridge.

He would spend much of his life at Cambridge, becoming a professor of mathematics and a fellow of the Royal Society (a group of scientists in England). He eventually was elected to represent Cambridge University as a member of parliament. Isaac had to leave Cambridge from 1665 to 1667 because of the Great Plague.

He spent these two years in study and isolation at his home in Woolsthorpe developing his theories on calculus, gravity, and the laws of motion. In 1696 Newton became the warden of the Royal Mint in London. He took his duties seriously and tried to get rid of corruption as well as to reform the currency of England.

He was elected President of the Royal Society in 1703 and was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705. Isaac grew up mostly alone. For the rest of his life he would prefer to work and live alone focused on his writing and his studies.Gravity – Newton is probably most famous for discovering gravity.

Outlined in the Principia, his theory about gravity helped to explain the movements of the planets and the Sun. This theory is known today as Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Laws of Motion – Newton’s laws of motion were three fundamental laws of physics that laid the foundation for classical mechanics.Calculus – Newton invented a whole new type of mathematics which he called “”fluxions.”” Today we call this math calculus and it is an important type of math used in advanced engineering and science. Nearly all of the major telescopes used in astronomy today are reflecting telescopes.

In conclusion Sir Isaac newton is one of the best, amazing astronomer that made a big impact on science and astronomy today.

## Works Cited

“Biographies for Kids.” Ducksters Educational Site, Technological Solutions, Inc., www.ducksters.com/biography/scientists/isaac_newton.php.

## Who Was Sir Isaac Newton?

Sir Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643, but in England they used the Julian Calendar at the time and his birthday was on Christmas Day 1642. He was born in Woolsthorpe, a hamlet in the country of Lincolnshire. His father had died before his birth and his mother had remarried after his birth and left Isaac to be raised by her mother.

He went to King’s School, Grantham from the time he was twelve to seventeen. He was withdrawn by his mother but later returned. He rose to the top of his class in ranking manly to get revenge toward a bully. He then began attending Trinity College in Cambridge in 1661. After receiving his degree he developed his theories on calculus over the span of two years during the plague.

He was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Sir Isaac Newton had several hobbies, but the two main ones are astronomy and alchemy. From 1669-1701, Sir Isaac Newton worked as a professor of mathematics at Cambridge. It was at Cambridge that he developed a new field of mathematics called calculus: credit is also shared with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. There is some argument regarding who gets the most credit: Leibniz or other contributed. It was Isaac Newt and with Leibniz who developed the “developed the mathematics of the infinitesimal” which is calculus. This is a most elegant and extraordinary tool of mathematics, as it is a key to advanced analysis of everything in the technical world. This is or have you heard of the “Newton-Leibniz formula” which is a sign for integral, which a method of computation of definite integrals. Sir Isaac Newton discovered and proved the theory of gravitational force and many other contributions to mathematics, optics and physics, but his mots important contribution was appointing Francis Hauksbee as a curator. Sir Issac Newton is most credited with the generalized binomial theorem, valid for an exponent.

He discovered Newton’s identities, Newton’s method, classified cubic plane curves (such as: polynomials of degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. This was to us fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. Then there was the Euler’s summation formula in which was harmonic series that was the first to us power series with confidence and to revert power series. He also discovered a new formula for pi. There are three more contributions to mathematics for Sir Isaac Newton: 1. He made mathematics foundation of science. 2. Co-invented calculus. 3. Used mathematics as the decider of science in the form of correct calculations. If the math did not get the right answer the science was wrong. Sir Isaac Newton had insights into the nature of motion, gravity, light and mathematics, that proved to be fundamental to our scientific understanding of the universe that we live in. Newton gave us an accurate mathematical analysis of the basic phenomena of which our world consists. Not only in the development of calculus, he generalized the binomial theorem. He came up with a quick way to approximate a number’s root.

There was some confusion as to who developed calculus Newton or Leibniz. We can give thanks for inventing analytical fluxion type of the Calculus and to Leibniz the differential/integral type of the Calculus. Many things that were vaguely understood before Newton made more sense with the help of Newton’s work. His work was monumental in mathematics as well as science. He developed a complete calculations of rates and relationships much simpler than they would otherwise be. This is used in engineering. Sir Isaac Newton has and did make a great contribution to the world of mathematics as well as science. Sir Isaac Newton was a truly amazing mathematician and scientist. He achieved so much in his lifetime and the amount of discoveries he made can seem almost impossible. He helped make huge advancements in mathematics and created theorems that we still use heavily to this day.

## Isaac Newton: Inventions that Changed the World

Many people have heard of at least the name of Isaac Newton alone. Do people really know his sufficient? Often, he is just thought of as another inventor or creator, but he is much more than that. He played a huge part in what we know of our world today.

Isaac Newton was born January 4 ,1643 in a town called Woolsthorpe which is located in Lincolnshire, England. One weird think about his birth date is that some calendars say it is December 25, 1642 while others say that it is January 4, 1643. Isaac is the second Isaac in his family making him a junior and his dad died before he was born. At a very young age, Newton’s mother married a new guy and Isaac hated him, so he lived with his mother’s mother. It is often said that Isaac hated his mother and step father so much he wanted to burn their house down. This is very eye popping being that he was saying that at a young age and his mother still stayed with his step father. Isaac was a very smart boy and he attended a school called The King’s School that had no science or math which is very interesting because of what he contributed to science and math in his later career.

When Isaac was just eighteen years old he went to Cambridge University Trinity college to study to become a lawyer. By his third year at Cambridge, Isaac had started growing an interest in math and what we know today as physics. He learned a lot at Cambridge but preferred to study more recent information on math and physics than what they were teaching in class based on his saying, Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my greatest friend is truth. This saying says a lot as to what changes he brings to math and science.

Isaac Newton was famous for a lot of different discoveries that help us still in our lives today. One thing he discovered was the three basic laws of motion that we still us today in mechanical work. The first law of motion states that an object will keep moving or stay still until an external force is acted upon it. The second law of motion states that force equals mass times acceleration. The third law of motion is When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body. Each law of motion has its own set of rules and ways to test them.

The first law of motion says that an external force must be acted upon it to make it stay still or keep moving. Motion is a state to which a body is indifferent (Westfall pg.8). An example of this would be a roller coaster. A roller coaster that is sitting still will not go until an object is used to push it to make it go and keep it going. If the roller coaster did not have that force, then it would not move. As the reader knows this still applies to us today in the twenty first century. He did not create anything with this law of motion he just made a statement that is proven true that we still us today in science.

The second law of motion states that force equals mass times accerlation. Mass is a body of matter that has no definite shape. Accerlation is the increase in the rate or speed of an object. So, looking back at the roller coaster example will help to explain this law. The roller coaster is the object that will be accerelting. When a force is pushed on the roller coaster it causes it to move which causes it to pick up speed or accerlate. The area the roller coaster is moving through is the mass. So, when a roller coaster is pushed down a hill, it goes from no force to a force being pushed on it causing speed and for it to move. Again, this is just a law of motion that Newton stated based on evidence he saw.

The third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. According to a post by Jim Lucas a live science contributor he states a clear example, when you push a cart, the cart pushes back against you; when you pull on a rope, the rope pulls back against you; and when gravity pulls you down against the ground, the ground pushes up against your feet. The simplified version of this phenomenon has been expressed as, “”You cannot touch without being touched.”” He explains the third law of motion with different examples to help you be able to understand. Newton did not come up with these laws of motion just by himself. Newton expanded on the ideas put forth by Galileo and Descartes. The laws of motion were first introduced by Newton in his book called Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematic.

The book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematic or in other words Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy was published in July 1687 and he still read and used today in the world of science. The overview of the book is that it was written to mathematical set out the principles of time, force, and motion that help us get to the understanding of the science we have today. According to a summary by Buffalo and Erie Country Public Library it says, Newton’s principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system. Each of the items talked about in his book are discussed in this paper to help you better understand his contributions to the world.

Another contribution to science made by Isaac Newton was the law of gravity. He supposedly came up with this idea when an apple fell from a tree and hit his head. This discovery was based off his discovery of the second law of motion. He thought that being that the apple fell from a tree it went from a velocity of zero to falling because an external force was pushed on it. He then used his theory of gravity to conduct experiments to test his theories. As children we heard this story in school about Isaac Newton and probably thought it was funny which it is but he is the reason we know why we stay on this Earth and do not float around in it.

Newton also discovered natural light and all of its properties. He discovered the different color wavelengths with the use of a prism. In the discovery of color, it is just a white beam of light shining through a prism to give of color. One of the things that still works with us today is that human perception of color is just a mental phenomenon. This is hard to think about because what we think of as seeing color is just a reflecting off a white beam. So, the world is basically all white it is just the way our eyes get reflecting is how we see color.

One thing that Newton invented that really sticks out to me is the reflecting telescope. The reflecting telescope was invented in 1668 by Newton. In an article written by Brian Ventrudo he explains how the telescope works, Reflecting telescopes (or reflectors) collect light using a curved mirror at the rear of the main tube rather than a lens at the front end. Isaac Newton invented the first reflecting telescope in the late 17th century. He used a second small diagonal mirror to direct light out the side of the telescope to an eyepiece. His immensely practical design, now called the Newtonian reflector, is the main type of purely reflecting telescope in use today by amateur astronomers. Newtonian telescopes have made a comeback in the past two decades with the introduction of the Dobsonian telescope, which is a Newtonian reflector mounted on a simple but sturdy mount. During the time that Newton invented this telescope, his telescope was so successful at being the first one, Newton got a membership with the Royal Society of London which is a big deal.

This society is still popular today in the United Kingdom. The early years of the Society saw revolutionary advancements in the conduct and communication of science. Hooke’s Micrographia and the first issue of Philosophical Transactions were published in 1665 alone. Philosophical Transactions, which established the important concepts of scientific priority and peer review, is now the oldest continuously-published science journal in the world ( History of the Royal Society). This is very fun to research and learn about and how the society is still around to this day.

Not only did Isaac have many discoveries and or inventions in science, He also had his own discoveries in religion as well. Isaac Newton studied the Bible daily and of course like he was about science he was about religion as well about not taking someone’s word and having to dig deeper into the area of study. Isaac did not believe that the interpertations of the Bible was correct and therefor he decided to study deeper. Isaac believed that there was a difference between God and Jesus as been to different people.

Another thing that Isaac brought to the table about religion was the Bibicial code. Newton was fascinated with the early Church and also the last chapter of the Bible Revelations. He spent many hours poring over the Bible, trying to find the secret Bible Code. He was rumored to be a Rosicrucian. The religious beliefs that Newton held could have caused serious embarrassment at the time. Because of this, he kept his views hidden, almost to the point of obsession. This desire for secrecy seemed to be part of his nature. It was only on his death that his papers were opened up. The bishop who first opened Newton’s box, actually found them too shocking for public release, therefore, they were kept closed for many more years ( Pettinger). Newton was a very secretive guy on some points of his life making it hard for us to truly be able to know the true Isaac Newton.

The next discovery that Newton figured out that changed the world was discoveries in the area of mathematics. Although parts of calculus is credited to Leibniz, Newton came up with the type of calculus that shows continuous change. With the contribution made by Newton in calculus, we are able to figure out the area of shapes that do not have straight lines, like circles. Many of the mathematical contributions he made are very common sense to us today but during the 17th century, it was not that way.

Another contribution to mathemathics that Newton discovered was the binomial theorem. A binomial is a polynomial with two terms ( math is fun). Newton belief in the persistence of patterns led to his first significant mathematics discovery, the generalization of the expansion of binomial expressions. For the most part, his discovery was accidental and was never formally proven by Newton (Newtonl1). To be able to really understand this you have to work about a binomial problem to see how Newton’s discovery helps to simplify math with equations and formulas we still use today. Newton helped make math some much easier for us but we still struggle with it every single day.

Newton also helped to come up with the generations of curves. This was an important topic, since in order to determine the point of intersection of curves in the construction of geometrical solutions, it was natural to think of the curves as generated by a continuous motion driven by some instrument (Guicciardini pg.6). With motion involved there has to be a point of intersection. Newton was able to devise a mechanism for generating conics and to extend it to higher order curves (Guicciardini pg.6). We use circles and curves in our every day lives whether it has to do with map, directions on a map, or drawing a circle we use it everyday.

During Newton’s later years in life, he got somewhat out of science and was appointed to a position of warden of the Royal Mint. The Royal Mint is a British governmental institution that controls the production of British coins. Newton became the Master of Mint in 1699 and chose to partake in the government’s war against the money counterfeiters. He reformed the government’s policy on counterfeiting and sought to punish counterfeiters and clippers. At the time when Newton was Master of Mint, counterfeiting money was considered as an act of high treason: those convicted of the crime were sentenced to death and executed by being hung, drawn and quartered (Valjak). He spent his later years collecting criminals of counterfeit and thrived on stopping coin counterfeiters.

Newton lived a very well life. He was always busy coming up with or researching new ideas that he never had the time to have a girlfriend much less a wife. Newton was very insecure as a person and often times dealt with bad depression and the loss of his temper a lot. Newton died on March 31, 1727 at the age of eighty- four years old. When Newton was reaching the 80s he started to have digestion problems and in March of 1727 started having really bad abdomen pain and blacked out and went unconscious. He is buried in Westminister Abbey.

During the research of this paper, I found that many sources related to Newton as The Greatest Scientist of all times. Many of the discoveries that Newton made really helped to change our way of live in so many ways. Whether we prefer to use Newtons methods that he came up with on the mathematical side or if we are more interested in the three laws of motion Newton has impact our every day lives. I personally liked getting to know more about Newton other than just the guy who had an apple fall from a tree onto his head and he called it gravity. Being able to look at all aspects of Newton’s career from the very beginning to where we are now in the world help me to have more respect and appreciation for him as a scientist.