Analysis Of Irony And Imagery In The Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin
Nelson Mandela once said, “Freedom cannot be achieved unless the women have been emancipated from all forms of oppression”. As true as this statement rings, it’s not an original one. The discussion of the oppressed woman had been around over a century before he uttered these iconic words. Many have put pen to paper in an attempt to convey their frustrations with the suppression of women, yet few did so as early and effectively as Kate Chopin. She did so with the help of many literary elements, including irony and imagery. In “The Story of an Hour”, Chopin uses both irony and imagery to convey her theme of freedom versus confinement. As the story begins to unravel, it become abundantly clear that the reader’s expectations are about to be challenged. It comes as quite a shock to see Mrs. Mallard be so excited at the prospect of being free from her husband after his death. In most stories, love is considered to be the ultimate goal, yet Mrs. Mallard feels completely differently. “What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in the face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being!”. This captures the theme of freedom because she holds more value in her own independence than love for her husband. Chopin uses detailed descriptions of Mrs. Mallard’s feeling of freedom to truly capture how liberated she feels. The lead describes her sense of self as “drinking the very elixir of life”. The word elixir is often used in mystical stories as a means to showcase healing properties and almost always is used as a saving grace. Therefore, its’ use here lets the reader know freedom seemed like to Mrs. Mallard that her husband’s death was an antidote to her suffering.
The ending of the story is the most ironic component of the story due to Mrs. Mallard’s untimely death. It is especially ironic that the lead was dreaming of her new freedom and hoping for a long life mere sentences before she dies of her heart attack. “Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her….She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long”. This is a perfect example of the author’s theme of confinement battling freedom as her promise of freedom is very short-lived. It seems almost as if the cruel world never had any intentions of freeing her and seems as if she will stay forever confined. After learning of her husband’s death, at the beginning of the story, Mrs. Mallard’s movements are illustrated by Chopin as particularly restricted. When she goes to her room and sits in her armchair, “she (sinks), pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul”. However, as the story winds down and she comes to terms with her newfound liberation, her moves are far more graceful. Mrs. Mallard rises “at length” with “a feverish triumph in her eyes… carrying) herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory”. The stark difference in how Chopin chose to describe the leads descent into the chair versus her ascent from it showcases the character development in a few short paragraphs. Through the author’s use of vastly different imagery, it is easy to identify the change in Mrs. Mallard’s demeanor.
Although the concept of freedom and the concept of confinement are very much opposite, Chopin proves they are destined to coexist. For if there was never any confinement, how could anyone grasp the idea of being free? Through her use of imagery and irony, Kate Chopin illustrates the balance and struggle between the two antonyms in a way few authors had done before and set a precedent for those who came after.
Analysis of the Theme of Rebellion in the Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin
“The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin tells the story of Louise Mallard, a woman who has a heart condition that makes sudden, shocking news life-threatening, and her hidden desires regarding freedom. When her husband is believed to die in an accident, Mrs. Mallard’s sister and a friend of her husband’s must break the news to her gently while remaining mindful of her condition. After hearing the news of her husband’s death, Mrs. Mallard locks herself in her bedroom where the initial grief and distress from her husband’s death and her previously stifled marriage immediately begins to give way to a new passion for freedom and independence. Upon her decision to exit the room and display her fresh attitude, she walks down the stairs triumphed and thrilled by the thought of freedom. Soon after Mrs. Mallard exits her bedroom, her husband, Brently Mallard, returns home unharmed and unaware of the accident. Following her unscathed husband’s entrance, Mrs. Mallard suddenly dies of a heart attack due to her critical heart condition. The death of Mrs. Mallard is both literal and symbolic — within one hour, her dying lust for freedom has been accomplished and abolished. Of the several themes exhibited throughout “The Story of an Hour,” rebellion is the most prominent. Chopin’s story demonstrates the theme of rebellion because it indirectly confronts the lack of freedom regarding women, specifically those who are married, through the rebellious actions of Louise Mallard.
Louise Mallard continuously demonstrates rebellion throughout “The Story of an Hour” and reflects Chopin’s personal rejections of the postures of femininity. In the nineteenth century, women were often viewed as inferior, incapable, and dependent upon men. Regardless of how emotionally frustrated and betrayed she feels within her marriage, Mrs. Mallard conforms to the nineteenth century standards that are typical of that time period in which the story was written by offering natural servitude to her husband and tolerating marital restrictions that are imposed upon her. After hearing of her husband’s tragic death, Mrs. Mallard reacts in a way that is opposite of what might be considered plausible. Mrs. Mallard experiences a rush of excited emotions almost immediately after hearing of her husband’s death because she realizes the significant amount of upcoming freedom she would have. She appears to be extremely thrilled about her husband’s death because she constantly feels restrained and prohibited from life due to her marriage. She cries tears of relief as opposed to tears of grief because she is finally able to let go of being forced into femininity. Mrs. Mallard obliquely rebels through her reactions in the story because they reveal a significant dynamic emotional shift that indirectly conveys an overwhelming longing for more freedom and less marital restrictions for women: ‘There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature… What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in the face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being… She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long… There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory’. By proposing this absurd reaction, it is evident that Chopin’s is suggesting that marriage typically results in repression and a loss of freedom.
Mrs. Mallard’s emotional shift signifies rebellion because the emotions she experiences within “The Story of an Hour” are not those of a woman who was grieving the death of a loved one but are instead joyous emotions associated with a freedom that was surrendered when she chose to marry. Although Brently Mallard’s return at the end of the story disproves the reality of his death, Mrs. Mallard continues to prove her rebellious self-assertiveness and emotional shift by dying when the short-lived freedom is instantly ripped from her newly independent hands. The death of Mrs. Mallard’s husband was the only thing that could set her free and she was overcome with disappointment as that freedom was immediately disposed of when her husband arrived home: “It was Brently Mallard who entered… He stood amazed at Josephine’s piercing cry; at Richards’ quick motion to screen him from the view of his wife… When the doctors came, they said she had died of heart disease of the joy that kills”. Though the doctors assumed that she died of joy and relief after her husband’s return, she really died due to disappointment of no longer having the freedom that she previously encountered and briefly loved. Throughout “The Story of an Hour,” Louise Mallard continuously exhibits rebellious actions by reacting in ways that are opposite of what is anticipated due to her excitement regarding freedom and independence.
“The Story of an Hour” expresses the prominent theme of rebellion through the actions of Louise Mallard. When Mrs. Mallard hears from Josephine and Richards of Brently Mallard’s death, she initially experiences an internal conflict because she is stuck between deep sorrow and relief as she is unable to accept the significance of the situation by reacting emotionally violent with apparent grief. Alone, however, she begins to recognize a freedom and independence that will soon enliven and excite her. In the story, independence is considered an impermissible pleasure that can be considered only secretly. When Brently Mallard returns, he unintentionally seizes Mrs. Mallard’s independence away from her, making it unattainable once again. The prohibited joy Mrs. Mallard learned to enjoy vanishes just as quickly as it appeared, but the glimpse of it ends up being sufficient enough to kill her instantly. The entirety of “The Story of an Hour” is solely based on the rebellious actions of Louise Mallard regarding the relationship between marriage and freedom.
Analysis of Writing Techniques in the Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin
“The Story of an Hour’ is a short story in which Kate Chopin, the creator, exhibits a frequently incredible perspective on marriage. Mrs. Louise Mallard, Chopin’s fundamental character, encounters the thrill of opportunity as opposed to the devastation in death after she learns of her significant other’s demise. Afterward, when Mrs. Mallard discovers that her significant other, Brently, still lives, she realize that all desire for opportunity is no more. The shocking development of her husband’s reversed death instantly kills Mrs. Mallard. Distributed in the late eighteen hundreds, Kate Chopin’s Story of an Hour in which the author is clearly expressing oppression in Victorian marriages through the specific literary tool (human vs human conflict); the resolution of the conflict (her vs husband) is proven by her character development before and after his death. This conflict portrayed by the author is important in the story, because we it’s an insight on what went on in early Victorian marriages. Not only being the backbone of the family, and always supposed to act like a lady, it’s no clue that after the death of her husband, she’d obviously feel a sense of freedom. Apart from human vs. human conflict, the reader can also determine that there is human vs. society conflict taking place. This becomes apparent because in early times being an obedient wife made you the ‘perfect wife’. During the Victorian era, a lady was the archive of family ethical status – the person who might not just support the assortments of her kids and spouse, yet in addition their minds. After reading the story for a while we get to see who’s the main characters. The point of the short story was to show that even though marriages may seem like sunshine and rainbows, many times they are full of oppression, loss of identity, and slavery in certain ways.
In spite of the fact that Chopin can connect with Mrs. Mallard’s story, she doesn’t do as such in first person. Chopin uncovers the story through a storyteller’s voice. The storyteller isn’t just a spectator, be that as it may. The storyteller knows, for instance, that Mrs. Mallard, generally, did not adore her significant other. Clearly the storyteller knows more than can be physically observed. Chopin, be that as it may, never tells the reader what Mrs. Mallard is feeling. Rather, the reader must investigate Mrs. Mallard’s activities and words so as to comprehend what Mrs. Mallard feels.
Mrs. Mallard illustrates the deprivation of uprightness that Victorian wives put up with in their society. As Mrs. Mallard transforms into Louise, she represents her fellow female population’s ability to hope for a brighter world outside the confinements of marriage. Upon the newfound knowledge of her husband’s accident and death, her individuality into this incompatible way of life, neither Louise nor Mrs. Mallard could live while the other survived. Now they could be one and at peace. With the transformation from the wife of a man and soul owner of her life, Louise Mallard is unthinkingly destroyed in both her private and social self to escape the world in which she had just transcended. Louise Mallard’s story of an hour surrounding the idea of unfortunate life of the oppressed, despairing, and desperate Victorian housewife. Even though Mrs. Mallard adored her husband, and though he did treat her properly, she still felt a sense of confinement in her marriage. Initially, the reader realizes this in the lines 10-11 when the author says, “When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under her breath: ‘free, free, free!’ The reader can conclude that even though her husband has just died Mrs. Mallard looks forward to brighter independent future. One person who might agree with the reader is Jennifer Hicks, director of the Academic Support and Writing Assessment program at Massachusetts Bay Community College, when she said, “Mrs. Mallard, the young “repressed” woman who began to look at her widowhood as a rebirth, similar to the “new spring” outside her window, did not from such excitement. She expired from “a heart problem” — an immediate knowledge that her short lived glimpse into a “life she would live for herself,” a “life that might be extensive,” was not to be.” Textual evidence and a scholarly source can help the main point that the author was trying to illustrate.
Kate Chopin strategically uses specific writing techniques in her short story to get her point across. The construction the author has chosen for this short story fits the topic matter flawlessly. The reader can see that even though the story constructed with short paragraphs, many of which only have like two or three sentences. This writing style helps build up the climax, reading the short story quickly, but the effect it makes is very prevailing. Another occurrence where the reader can use the author’s writing technique to help determine the main theme of the story is how Chopin starts off the short story saying that Mrs. Mallard needs to be approached mildly with the bad news of her newly deceased husband, because she has existing heart problems. Originally this makes the reader feel like she is physically sick, we assume that tough times and Mrs. Mallard simply being older woman with a lot life experience, we conclude that this is the cause of her heart trouble. But after reading the entire story we can only determine that she was wholly sick from being in this overloaded of a marriage. The stress that comes with being the perfect wife, and always having to tend for her family finally ends when she believes that her husband had really died. One person that agrees with the reader would be Barbara C. Ewell when by comparing the two different types of ‘heart problems’ Mrs. Mallard might’ve been going through when she said, “But her illness gradually deepens in significance from a physical detail — a symptom of delicacy and a reason to break the bad news gently — to a deeply spiritual problem”. The more we learn about Brently Mallard’s overbearing nature and the greater his wife’s relief grows, the better we understand her “heart trouble.” Indeed, that “trouble” vanishes with Brently’s death and returns — fatally — only when he reappears.”
Thus referring back to the main conflict in this short story, human vs. human conflict, once the love of her life, the owner of her soul, and her oppressor had perished she was now free to live her own life. The Author also never calls Mrs. Mallard by her first name throughout the entire story, many times we hear the Brently Mallard’s name being mentioned, but whenever when Mrs. Mallard comes up, that’s all we ever get is Mrs. Mallard, and never her first name. This gives the peruser a comprehension on who is the essential head of the household in the marriage, and backs up the possibility that this short story was made to show how Victorian companions felt lesser than their spouses. The author does this to demonstrate that despite the fact that the both a part of the same marriage and ought to be one, they are absolutely not, and Mrs. Mallard has dealt with this for years and years. Chopin does this to show who’s the dominant one in the relationship. Whenever you call someone by their first name it is a sign of deference, by refusing to do this for Mrs. Mallard, Chopin shows the reader that during the Victorian age men in the relationship were clearly dominant. This also tips the reader to conclude that a loss of identity can easily occur in a confined, oppressed marriage.
Analysis Of Gender Roles In Kate Chopin’s The Story Of An Hour
One important issue that arose towards the end of the 20th century was the issue of gender. The issue of gender has become a topic that has entered into every social analysis, a subject in the debate over social change and has also become a major topic in discussions about development and social change. In recent times, various writings in both the mass media and books, or activities such as seminars, discussions, etc. discuss much about protests and lawsuits related to injustice and discrimination against women. Injustice and discrimination occur at almost all levels and sectors, ranging from the international, state, religious, social (social), cultural, economic, to the household level. Gender comes from the Latin ‘genus’, meaning type or type. Gender is a characteristic of roles and responsibilities imposed on women and men, which is determined socially and does not originate from God’s gift or nature. The concept of gender is the result of social construction created by humans, which are not permanent, changeable and can be transferred and exchanged according to the time, place and local culture from one sex to another. The concept of gender also includes the characteristics or characteristics of men and women created by family and / or society, which are influenced by culture and religious interpretations. For example, in general, cooking, child care, washing are always mentioned only as women’s work. This view is the creation of a society from a particular culture, even though the work can also be exchanged with men or can be done by men. But this view may differ from one culture to another. These characteristics or characteristics create a distinction between men and women called gender differentiation. This often results in different social roles between men and women. This role is learned and changes from time to time and from one place to another. This social role or often called gender role influences the pattern of power relations between women and men which is often referred to as gender relations.
The term gender was originally developed as an analysis of social science by Aan Oakley (1972). Since then, according to him, gender was then considered a good analytical tool to understand the problem of discrimination against women in general. Gender is not the same as gender (sex). The concept of sex or sex is more biological differences in women and men; on the difference between male and female bodies. Thus when we talk about gender differences, we will discuss the biological differences that are generally found between men and women, such as differences in terms of shape, height and weight in a person, in the structure of reproductive organs and function, in sound, etc. While gender is a term used to describe differences between men and women socially that shape them.
Gender is a concept of social relations that distinguishes functions and roles between men and women. The difference in functions and roles between men and women is not determined because there are biological and natural differences, but rather according to their position, function and role in various fields of life and development. According to Mead in the history and culture of Western societies, there are differences in personality between men and women. In this classification women are generally associated with certain personality traits such as maternal character, not aggressive, gentle-hearted, helpful, emotional, dependent, indulgent, caring for the needs of others and having feminism sexuality. Men, on the other hand, are associated with hard, aggressive, dominating personality traits and strong sexuality. The diversity in social life conditions, a system is made based on a consensus of values so that there is an interrelation that is for the sake of something called harmony, stability and balance (equilibrium). This system requires an adequate number of actors, so that the function and structure of someone in the system determines the achievement of stability or harmony. This applies to social systems: religion, education, political structure, to the household, in this case including gender. The socialization of the structure’s function is carried out through institutionalization, through socialized norms. Gender injustice and discrimination are conditions of inequality and inequality or are unfair as a result of a social structure system in which both women and men are victims of the system. Gender injustice occurs because of the beliefs and justifications that are instilled throughout human confrontation in various forms that not only affect women but also are experienced by men. Although overall gender inequality in various lives is more experienced by women, but gender inequality also affects men.
In this essay, the writer will discuss gender issues that can be seen from a short story titled ‘The Story of an Hours’ by Kate Chopin. Kate Chopin in her short story written in 1984 tells the story of a woman named Mallard. she has a heart health problem. One day the family reported that her husband had died in a train accident. Because of her heart condition, her sister had to be careful when delivering bad news to her. She was afraid that the news of her husband’s death would cause a heart attack. she devised a strategy of how to tell the news to his sister little by little, which worked very well. Mallard did not react as expected, but instead, she began to cry. Mallard wonders how she can survive without a husband. She went to a room and locked herself to reflect on what her husband’s death had brought to her life. She was sad that her husband was dead. This sudden death shocked her. His younger sister, Josephine, and friends Richard and Louise also grieved. When she was in the room alone, Mallard really thought of the future. Unexpectedly, she contemplated her life without her husband. Despite her sadness, she began to calculate the best parts of her life without her husband. She saw many opportunities and freedom to do what he wanted to do with her life. she believes that the coming years will be perfect because she only has to worry about herself. She even prayed that life would be long. After some time, she opened the door to Josephine, her sister who had a happy face. They went down the stairs of the house, and Mr. Mallard appeared when he opened the gate. Mallard was not involved in the accident and could not understand why Josephine cried. Upon seeing her husband, Mr. Mallard, his wife Mrs. Mallard collapsed and eventually died. The doctors said that she died because of heart disease.
From the story fragment from the short story ‘The Story of An Hour’ we can see that after all Mrs. Mallard, who initially felt saddened by the news of her husband’s grief, with a very calm flow, she suddenly enjoyed his sadness that instead turned into happiness. She realized that without a husband, he would be able to move freely. This flow is also described through flower symbols that are almost blooming, birdsong, and open windows bring fresh air to Mrs. Mallard. touches that support Mrs. Mallard to be happy and feel freedom. In a gender study, the story of this short story is as a social criticism of feminists who at that time realized how position based on gender is clearly not equal. How a woman must submit to a man, how a woman will end up being a wife, everything is limited by her husband. Here we can see how Mrs. Mallard realized that her love for her husband was closed by his free will from the restraints of her husband. The ending of this story is when Mrs. Mallard came out of the room proudly, feeling the happiness that still flowed in her body, but suddenly there came a man who turned out to be her husband who survived the accident. Mrs. Mallard was very hysterical, not because she was happy to see her husband return, but realized how happy she was to be free to fail. She also died of happiness that is only an instant. The background of the story
At that time, a woman did get rights far below a man. There a history about feminist; As the 20th century entered, the women’s movement in America began to collaborate with other women’s movements. This collaboration is carried out to strengthen each other in voicing their issues. One of the minor victories of women in America in the early 20th century was the acceptance of the XIX amendment (Nineteen). The amendment is an amendment to the law which guarantees voting rights for all adults regardless of sex. Depressed living conditions can foster women’s awareness of their abilities. Awareness of women’s abilities is no different from men beginning to emerge in 1940. It also cannot be separated from the occurrence of World War II. During the war, more than 6 million women had to work in various sectors that had been done by men. This moment made them realize that they were also able to work in various sectors that had been dominated by men. Around 1970, the issue of the growing women’s movement began to take a step forward. They then raised the problem of sexual discrimination that occurred in women. The demand for equal rights and social justice for women does not work alone, along with that, Martin Luther King, Jr. fight for the elimination of racial discrimination in America. Eventually they then made a push together and received enormous support from the American community. As a result of the urging the US Congress issued a bill, namely the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). However, in the course of the ERA it failed to become an amendment because it did not reach 2/3 of the votes from 35 countries. So that there are very many literary works that discuss feminism in order to carry out social criticism especially towards differences in gender treatment as in the short story written by Kate Chopin. With simple language and a short story, readers can easily grasp the message that a wife does not always feel happiness on the basis of love. The instinct of a wife as someone who can give birth, does not rule out the possibility for them to be able to move more, equal to men. Basically, gender differences exist on the basis of social norms that are intentionally formed in certain social settings. So the feminists feel, that between male and female gender should be equal.
The concept of gender also includes the characteristics or characteristics of men and women created by family and / or society, which are influenced by culture and religious interpretations. For example, in general, cooking, child care, washing are always mentioned only as women’s work. This view is the creation of a society from a particular culture, even though the work can also be exchanged with men or can be done by men. But this view may differ from one culture to another. These characteristics or characteristics create a distinction between men and women called gender differentiation. This often results in different social roles between men and women. This role is learned and changes from time to time and from one place to another. The writer in this paper tells about how From the story fragment from the short story ‘The Story of An Hour’ we can see that after all Mrs. Mallard, who initially felt saddened by the news of her husband’s grief, with a very calm flow, he suddenly enjoyed his sadness that instead turned into happiness. He realized that without a husband, he would be able to move freely. In a gender study, the story of this short story is as a social criticism of feminists who at that time realized how position based on gender is not equal. How a woman must submit to a man, how a woman will end up being a wife, everything is limited by her husband. Here we can see how mrs. Mallard realized that his love for her husband was closed by his free will from the restraints of her husband. The ending of this story is when Mrs. Mallard came out of the room proudly, feeling the happiness that still flowed in her body, but suddenly there came a man who turned out to be her husband who survived the accident. Mrs. Mallard was very hysterical, not because she was happy to see her husband return, but realized how happy he was to be free to fail. He also died of happiness that is only an instant.
- Short story entitled “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin https://lakilakibaru.or.id/sejarah-gerakan-perempuan-di-dunia/ https://gendernews88.wordpress.com/2010/09/07/konsep-dan-teori-gender/ https://archive.vcu.edu/english/engweb/webtexts/hour/storyofhour.html
Ideas for Trips in October: 9 Irresistible Proposals
Holiday ideas for the fall? We propose 9 tourist destinations for a trip in October. There are for all tastes and budgets. We are in September, start to organize it. 9 ideas to travel in October (even in September) If you have a rest for your August vacation, start planning getaways for the next few months. These are our proposals, for all tastes, ages and budgets.
- Cyprus, if you want to extend the feeling of summer For those who want a sunny holiday in October, it turns out that nowhere else in the Mediterranean does summer heat last longer than in Cyprus. While October is the wettest and most uncertain month in Mallorca, Cyprus still has nine hours of sunshine per day, with maximum temperatures of 28ºC and the sea, after a long hot summer, is like a hot bath. It is true that much of the coastal development has not developed very subtly, but the western end of the island and, especially, the Akamas peninsula and the inland towns, are still untapped.
- The beauty of the Lake District (England) The area of the Lake District in England: Cumbria, in addition to being the most spectacular beauty county in England, is also the wettest. The solution is to go at a time of the year when we do not have great expectations about the weather. If it rains, go for a drive and then dry off before the fire in the afternoon. If it is sunny, we can see the moors with its most resplendent aspect; the dying ferns turn orange, the rowan trees are bright red and the leaves in the valley forests are changing. Here you have very useful information to plan an amazing stay in the Lake District in England.
- Munich: Oktoberfest: The Beer Festival Munich is often underestimated as an urban destination (the Alte Pinakothek, for example, has one of the best art collections in Europe), and for this reason it is sometimes mentioned only for its world-renowned beer festival held every year between end of September and beginning of October. The festival has already been more than 200 years old, focusing on a dozen beer shops erected in the P ar Theresienwiese, near the center of the city. The influx of people is important so you should plan the day and book a site well in advance. See also: Ideas on what to do at the beer festival in Munich. 2018 has become a monumental year for cultural and sexuality and gender acceptance. Not only women have come forth with allegations of sexual assault, but genders are no longer limited to only male and female. Even Hollywood is beginning to show signs of change when it comes to the ethnicities or sexuality of leading roles; Netflix’s To All the Boys I’ve Loved Before and Marvel’s Black Panther are good examples of that. However, whether it be as long ago as the Victorian era or as recent as today, many still attempt to change their identity for fear of discrimination due to physical traits. This is observed through several works of literature and art. More specifically, the works of Kate Chopin, Maya Angelou, and Andrew Wyeth all share a similar theme: one may adopt public identities due to the critical and discriminatory world that surrounds them.
The first struggle with identity due to discrimination is observed in Kate Chopin’s short story, “The Story of an Hour”. In the short story, the main character, Mrs. Mallard, lives in a male-favored society where women don’t have much control over their lives. Mrs. Mallard’s husband recently died and she processes this news in her bedroom. “She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister’s arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her,” Chopin wrote. Chopin first depicts Mrs. Mallard as a grieving widow who is terribly upset. However, Chopin went on to write: “She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. There were patches of blue sky showing here and there through the clouds that had met and piled one above the other in the west facing her window. ” This is quite a contrast to what Chopin wrote earlier; using the literary element of visual imagery, Chopin now describes the scenery to be lush, bright, and beautiful. Those three adjectives are typically associated with light and life- happy things. Death, however, is not something that is “ aquiver with new spring life. ” In literacy, movies, and art, death is typically viewed as dark, wretched, and somber. Chopin’s use of juxtaposition shows the first change in Mrs. Mallard’s view of her husband’s death. Mrs. Mallard even begins to question her love in her husband. “And yet she had loved him — sometimes. Often she had not. What did it matter!” Not only is Mrs. Mallard beginning to shed her mask as a loving, dependent, submissive woman, but she is also beginning to show the identity beneath it all: a free woman who exists for herself and herself alone. “‘Free! Body and soul free!’ she kept whispering. ” As Mrs. Mallard sits in her room, Chopin uses visual imagery to hint at the fact that she’s beginning to suffer from a heart attack. One can infer that for Mrs. Mallard, her death will free her from the boundaries, constraints, and expectations of her society. In the last paragraph of “The Story of an Hour”, Chopin wrote: “When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease — of the joy that kills. ” This shows how Mrs. Mallard’s death was her freedom, for she can no longer be suppressed.
Mrs. Mallard was freed from the chains of marriage; the woman in Maya Angelou’s poem, “The Mask”, however, still feels the constraints of racism that forces her to don her “mask”. Angelou’s use of juxtaposition, metaphors, and onomatopoeia can help the reader realize that the woman in her poem lives in a turbulent, racist world. Stanzas 1-9 are from Paul Laurence Dunbar, speaking of a person who hides their pain away from the world by donning a fake, satisfied mask. Angelou then begins to write her own words: “We smile but oh my God Our tears to thee from tortured souls arise And we sing Oh Baby doll, now we sing.The clay is vile beneath our feet. But let the world think otherwise We wear the mask. ” Angelou uses juxtaposition; at first, she speaks of a hell-like world but then mentions singing. Singing is often viewed as light-hearted and wholesome, not a way to express agony. However, it seems like the woman in the poem sings to show the world that they’re “fine”, hiding behind a mask in order to protect themselves from society’s harsh critic. Angelou went on to write on stanzas 33-37: “They grow the fruit but eat the rind. Hmm huh! I laugh uhuh huh huh. Until I start to cry when I think about myself And my folks and children. ” Growing the fruit but eating the rind is a metaphor for laboring but suffering from it. Perhaps Angelou is mentioning the slavery past of African Americans; they labored and bled endlessly for the South and yet they do not have a better world. They may have been emancipated, but are still discriminated against. I believe that Angelou is using onomatopoeia to show how much the woman is trying to disguise her pain by laughing. However, the woman begins to cry when she thinks about the world around her and how this era may not be any better than it was for African Americans many years ago. Angelou wrote a metaphor on stanzas 42-45 saying: “My fathers sit on benched gnarled like broken candles, All waxed and burned profound. They say, but sugar, it was our submission that made your world go round. ” Candles are often used to light up rooms, but as soon as they’re unappealing or used, they’re discarded. Perhaps the woman’s “fathers” (elders, perhaps,) have seen the cruelty of the world and learned to yield to anyone to make it easier for the future generation.
“The Story of an Hour” and “The Mask” focus on the issues of gender and race through the use of literary elements; however, “Christina’s World” by Andrew Wyeth is a painting that gives a powerful message of a struggle with identity due to physical discrimination. It features a girl sitting in the peaceful scenery of what one can assume is the countryside. Upon closer inspection though, we realize that this painting may not be as peaceful as it appears, for one can begin to realize that the girl’s right arm seems slightly distorted. This raises questions to the surface: what is “wrong” with her? Why is she alone in the field? With background knowledge, I know that “Christina’s World” was painted during 1948- the height of a polio outbreak. Perhaps the girl has been disowned due to her ailment, that could explain why her left hand is hesitantly reaching towards the house as if she’s yearning to return. Wyeth used an element of art, space, to show how far the girl is from the house- it could be a metaphor for how the inhabitants of that house have pushed her away. Other elements of art Wyeth used are contrast and line; the field that the girl sits in is darker than the fields by the house. That could represent how the girl is in a darker time due to the discrimination she suffers because of her physical disability. As for the use of line, Wyeth cleverly uses tractor lines and a fence to show the boundaries between the girl and the house. All of these elements of design tie into the message that this girl is trying to find who she is amidst this dark time. Others have discriminated against her physical disabilities, so she is trying to salvage her true self since no one has control over her.
We are so used to an accepting and politically correct world that we often forget how life was before. African Americans must still wear a “mask” to stay alive; while there may not be segregation, there is police brutality that terrorizes them daily. They must wear their mask because it “ kept my race alive. ” (61) Not only is there racism amidst the world, but there is still sexism and racism. Every day, women are being catcalled are harassed; every day the disabled are mocked for something they can not change. Authors and artists never create without a purpose; even in our young adult fiction, there is always a message. History teaches us to learn from our mistakes, and literature does too. We must learn to heed other’s words; listen, learn, and let our world become a better, more just place.
- Venice, the romantic journey of always Unalterably beautiful and romantic. The wonderful thing about the famous paintings about the Venice of Canaletto is that what he painted has hardly changed since then. So if we want to see the real place, Venice usually still enjoys a mild climate in October, with some fog in the morning. See What to visit in Venice. Venice does not need marketing, it is the romantic city and autumn is also the most romantic season, so it should only be noted that in case you already know a great alternative is Florence, or Tuscany and its people in general.
- Jordan: bathing in the Dead Sea, camping in the desert of Wadi Rum, visiting Petra. . . Although the war in Syria, the neighboring country, can scare, the more adventurous can opt for Jordan. October is the ideal time to go, with a temperature in the north around 20ºC and a little higher in the Red Sea and in the desert near Wadi Rum. The most common stops on a week-long or 10-day minibus tour are the Roman ruins of Jerash, the splendid mosaic floors in Madaba, a bath in the Dead Sea, camping in the desert in Wadi Rum (setting of Lawrence of Arabia ), a visit to Petra and a couple of days on the beach in Aqaba.
- Mauritius Island, paradise at its best To enjoy a tropical sun in October, the weather on this island in the Indian Ocean is at its best in autumn. October is the driest, sunniest and least humid month, with temperatures around 27ºC. Paradise does not need more explanations.
- National Parks in Spain (or in Europe or in the world) About six years ago I visited New Forest, England, in October: In New Forest, old beech trees and oaks (many between 200 and 300 years old) provide the most vivid reds and oranges, while the paler yellow leaves and acorn Evergreen and yew provide the contrast. In the early morning, it is the best time to enjoy the spectacle of nature. You can also visit any of the wonderful natural parks in Spain where the Autumn is already felt in the trees and nature. From the Picos de Europa, the Pyrenees, to Cazorla or Doñana, all have the autumnal charm in greater or lesser intensity. And if you love, go to any of the best natural parks in the world. None will disappoint you.
- Parma, Italy: autumn, opera and Verdi And we continue with the romantic. Verdi, it’s a good reason to visit Parma in October. For early risers in September, it is usually preceded by a Parma Ham Festival, which is an opportunity to sample samples from hundreds of producers. But the biggest autumnal event, near the city of northern Italy, is the Verdi Festival, which is held during the month of October, with opera performances in Parma and surroundings.
- New York, Halloween dress And as without realizing October is over, we must take advantage of it and enjoy the most special Halloweeen. For those who want to live a Halloween experience like the one that comes out in American movies. Throughout the USA on Halloween the streets of most towns and cities are filled with parades and attendees come to the party dressed in extravagant costumes. But there is no bigger party than New York, where the parade has evolved from the puppet shows that were in the seventies. The result is a spectacular progression of monstrous figures marching down Sixth Avenue, from Spring Street to 21st Street. Nearly two million New Yorkers take to the streets – most in disguise. See New York in five days.
A Study of Edna Pontillier’s Feeling Towards Love and Lust in The Awakening by Kate Chopin
Touch of Lust and Love
Edna Pontillier’s two lovers in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening induce very distinct attitudes within Edna and the importance of these lovers are shown in contrasting physical touch. Robert and Edna’s relationship begins as a friendship that gives emotional comfort and mental stimulation to both of them, making room for a deeper connection as they fall in love. Edna enjoys Robert’s touch because she feels emotionally secure with him and she learns he his able to fill not only her mental needs but also her physical needs. The relationship with Alcee is born only out of Edna’s physical needs and large amount of lust with no mental fulfillment. Edna does not feel the love or even the emotional comfort which Robert gives her and feels this lack of affinity in an unattached and indifferent acceptance of Alcee’s presence. The difference between Edna’s relationship with Robert and Alcee is manifest in the loving tender caress of Robert and the seductive, magnetic kiss of Alcee, highlighting the difference between Edna’s physical and emotional needs.
Robert’s presence and touch provokes a feeling of emotional contentment with appears because her love of Robert fills both physical and mainly her emotional needs. Robert “penetrat[es] her mood and understand[s]” (29) this comfort on the mental and emotional level leads Edna to take “his arm, but…not lean upon it” (29). Edna is able to accept Robert’s physical touch only because she feels this emotional connection to him not because she depends on Robert to hold her up, only because he understands her. The two lovers feel a link so strong that when Robert leaves for Mexico Edna is very unwilling to say goodbye and clings to his hand “striving to detain him” (45). Edna uses her hand as physical means to communicate with Robert the strong emotional objection she feels to him leaving. While Robert is away his letters to Mademoiselle Reisz “[penetrate] (Edna’s) whole being…warming and brightening the dark places of her soul” (81). Even without Robert’s physical presence Edna is still able to feel an emotional connection to him, which brings her joy, revealing that their feelings for each other are more than temporary lust. When finally reunited, Robert’s first reaction is to grab her hand “without knowing what he was saying or doing” (97). The immediate physical touch shows Robert’s immense feelings of not only physical attraction but emotional adoration as well. The attachment that Edna feels for Robert has much more emotional and mental weight for Edna than the physical seduction of Alcee.
Alcee represents physical lust and fleeting satisfaction with only physical affection to entice her and fulfill her physical requirements. When Alcee and Edna first get to know each other he “drew…Edna like a magnet” and was as alluring as “an intoxicant” (74). Alcee is dangerous but Edna feels the need to fulfill her physical needs and Alcee is the most magnetic candidate. When Alcee finally seduces Edna to physical affection, she “[does] not think or care whether (the kiss) [was] genuine or not” (77) but still “like[s] the touch of his fingers through her hair” (82). Edna is unwilling to spend time considering Alcee’s or her own emotional attachments but enjoys the sensuous and seductive physical closeness he provides. Alcee’s touch “kindled desire” (83) but left a “dull pang of regret” which saddens Edna (84). The inability of Edna to enjoy Alcee’s touch after it occurs is proof of the completely lust-based nature of her attraction toward him. The touch of Alcee leaves a thrilling although regrettable and often apathetic experience for Edna and only leaves her missing the comfort and love of Roberts caress.
The difference between Alcee and Robert is evident in Edna’s feelings and her reactions toward each of their physical touch. Edna is drawn to Alcee by his physical appearance and his attitude “not overburdened with depth of though or feeling” not by any true emotional connection that is at all comparable to Robert and Edna’s relationship (74). There is none of the amiable easiness that abounds between Edna and Robert and Alcee presses his lips on Edna “as if he wished never more to withdraw them” (77) however, Edna responds to his generous actions in a “monotonous, dull tone” and has no emotional feelings for the young man (77). This is ironic considering a mere letter from Robert evokes a “soulful and poignant longing” highlighting the enduring love that connects Edna to Robert and the momentary desire that draws Edna to Alcee. The differences in Edna’s emotions toward the touch/presence of both her lovers once again makes the distinctness between love and lust clearer.
Edna’s distinct feelings toward lust and love are evident in her relationships toward Robert and Alcee and the human touch that follows. The love she feels for Robert is comforting and invokes not only a sense of emotional safety but a physical one as well. These two feeling are a result of the genuine love she feels for Robert. Edna is unwilling or unable to find any of the same comfort in Alcee and only uses him to fulfill her physical in needs in acts of fleeting lust and passion without the same continuous warmth she feels for Robert. These differences are seen in the physical touch that is shared between each couple and defines the meaning of their relationship. The difference between the physical touching of Robert and Edna and Alcee and Edna symbolize the contrast between Edna’s physical and emotional needs as a woman.
The Childish Behavior of Edna Pontellier in The Awakening
Because she rarely thinks about the consequences her actions have on other people, Edna Pontellier resembles a child. Nothing illustrates her childishness more powerfully than the scenes with her own sons, in which she betrays her irresponsibility and self-absorption. Yet Edna is far from alone in her failure to act as a loving, attentive parent: Chopin repeatedly shows us men and women who make little effort to understand their children. By including Edna in this array of bad parents, Chopin suggests that childishness is pandemic and therefore makes it difficult for us to wholly condemn her protagonist.
Several of Chopin’s characters liken Edna’s behavior to the carelessness and unpredictability of a child. “In some way you seem to me like a child,” says Madame Ratignolle. “You seem to act without a certain amount of reflection which is necessary in this life.” The statement—which does not provoke a response from Edna—is a criticism of our protagonist’s habit of accepting late-night visits from a man who is not her husband. Later, Dr. Mandelet refers to Edna as “my dear child” and tells her that she has not awakened to the realities of adult life—particularly, the necessity of self-abnegation and concern for other people. Edna herself admits that her behavior is childish after she has paranoid, jealous feelings about the Mexican woman who made Robert a new pouch. In each case, Edna acts on her own desires without showing empathy for others, and is thus labeled a child.
The label seems most accurate whenever Edna interacts with her own children, as she never shows an interest in what they’re thinking and feeling. An early, painful passage describes Edna in the midst of telling a story; she hopes to calm down Etienne and Raoul before they go to bed. Instead, her story excites the children, makes them more talkative and awake, and they are ultimately puzzled when Edna breaks off mid-sentence, gives a halfhearted promise to finish the next day, and leaves to fret about Robert’s imminent departure for Mexico. Later, Edna betrays her childishness again when she tells Raoul and Etienne about the new apartment she has bought near the Pontellier house. Raoul and Etienne ask sensible questions about whether there will be room for the whole family in this apartment, and Edna murmurs that “the fairies” will take care of all logistical problems. Edna’s willingness to deposit her children at Léonce’s mother’s house for indeterminate stretches of time suggests that she is more concerned with her own entertainment than with her maternal responsibilities.
But in this brave and unnerving novel, Edna’s childish behavior is not unique. With the exception of the Ratignolles, Chopin’s parental characters consistently fail to show empathy toward their sons and daughters. Léonce, for example, spends most of his time conducting business far from his family and sends occasional boxes of bonbons as a reminder of his ostensible paternal love. Madame Lebrun complains about Victor’s aimlessness and bad manners when, as Chopin notes, the aging woman is at least partially to blame for having favored and spoiled Victor throughout his youth. The Colonel bickers with Edna instead of trying to elicit her reasons for skipping her sister’s wedding, then gives up and advises his son-in-law to hit and yell at Edna more frequently. Léonce’s mother ignores the obvious fault lines in the Pontellier marriage so she can have more time with her grandchildren. Throughout The Awakening, Chopin’s characters disappoint their sons and daughters.
By hinting that Edna is not alone in her childishness, Chopin shows that her unlikable protagonist is not simply a villain. The novel frequently encourages us to condemn Edna, since many of the characters comment on her self-absorption and she herself displays this egoism in her conversations with Raoul and Etienne. However, by describing a network of similarly flawed mothers and fathers, Chopin suggests that Edna’s failings are universal. Indeed, the reason the novel unsettles so many readers may be that, in Chopin’s honest portrait of Edna Pontellier, we recognize our own features
Comparison between “The Necklace” and “The Story of an Hour” stories
The setting for Guy de Maupassant’s “The Necklace” and Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” take place during the 1800s when men played the dominant role over women. In both stories the protagonists are each yearning for a better life and each struggle to find it in a slightly different way.
Kate Chopin and Guy de Maupassant both use imagery and symbolism at its best. In describing Mrs. Mallard’s reaction to her husband’s death, “The tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life…The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves.” Immediately the symbol of a sparrow twittering gives you the impression of rebirth. The trees were all aquiver with new spring life symbolizes a new beginning. A fresh start.
In “The Necklace” Guy de Maupassant uses the following imagery and symbol, “She suffered endlessly, feeling herself born for every delicacy and luxury. She suffered from the poorness of her house, from its mean walls, worn chairs, and ugly curtains. All these things, of which other women of her class would not even have been aware, tormented and insulted her.” Again, here you get the impression of a drab unhappy home with all the material things tattered and worn as a symbol of possessions that are old, aging and dreary. Obviously, these are not the things that would make her happy and provide the feeling of being young and vibrant. Although the Loisel’s are not in the lowest economic class Madam Loisel dreams of being rich. Guy de Maupassant also uses lists. This is to highlight the fact that she feels like she can name so many things wrong with her life and so many things she wants.
Both stories use irony to make a point. In “The Necklace” Madame Loisel is invited to a prestigious ball and borrows a necklace which she thought was very expensive and lost it. Madame Loisel and her husband knew that they had to replace the necklace and saved for 10 years. Madam Loisel bumps into Madame Forrestier and is told that the necklace which she thought was diamonds were fake. In “The Story of an Hour” when Mrs. Mallard’s husband appears at the doorstep very much alive and Mrs. Mallard sees him, she is the one who collapses and dies from the shock of his being alive “She had died of heart-disease of joy that kills”. Both writers send the message that all the suffering could have been avoided had they been satisfied with what they already had instead of chasing rainbows.
The Rising Culture of Feminism in Desiree’s Baby and The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin
The two stories, Desiree’s Baby, and The Story of an Hour, by Kate Choplin, both depict the rising culture of feminism that took place during the time period that they were written. The two very opposing stories show different perspectives on the topic of feminism and freedom for women. They stories, too, show a harsh reality of how society occurred during this time period, and how women were treated.
In Desiree’s Baby, the wife is portrayed as a gentle, motherly, loving woman who basically lives for her husband. She is shown to have none of her own emotions, saying she “loved him desperately. When he frowned, she trembled, but loved him. When he smiled, she asked no greater blessing of God. (Choplin 2)” This story strongly represents the lack of say women had over their own lives, and the amount of control men had over them and their relationships. When Desiree is kicked out of her, her lack of argument shows just how little women got to say when decisions were made for them. This conflict also shows how men often in these times blamed women for faults instead of blaming themselves or even questioning if they were slightly at fault. I found this point especially important because it shows the amount of strength and courage it took for women in this time to fight for their rights and equality.
The Story of an Hour gives a very different perspective on feminism from the other story, which showed the woman being controlled and never recovering from it. While the woman in this story does not get to live freely as well, she at least begins to understand and appreciate her life for her own reasons, and not her husbands. In the beginning of this story, the wife is shown as women and consumed with grief because of her heart disease and the death of her husband. Though, her portrayal and the idea of feminism changes drastically when the women is alone in a room, and sees opportunity through an open window. She realizes she has lived her life under her husband’s limitations and controls, and only just now understands that she did not actually love him. She finally for the first time in her life does not dread living, she says, “Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her.
Spring days, summer days, and all sorts of days that would be her own (Choplin 3)”, and sees it as a sign of rebirth, revitalization, and love for herself. This realization shows how strong and limitless women are when not held back because of their gender or sex. In the end, despite the fact that Louise died, I see this as her at her strongest. For once, her body and mind are able to do something that is for her happiness, not anyone else’s, and that in itself is such an important part of feminism.
Society and Culture on Gender Roles
Historically, during the late nineteenth century, there was a high importance set on women to fulfill their roles of motherhood and housewife. Society set ideals into place where a woman had to provide her husband with a “happy home,” so that her husband had a place to rest after doing his noblest duties of fatherhood and manhood. In “The Story of an Hour,” Louise clearly shows that this lifestyle is not for her. Her self-centeredness shows that she is looking forward to experiencing the zest that life has to offer her. She is, however, conflicted with herself at the same time and struggles to identify if she has feelings for her husband. Due to Louise’s disbelief of her husband’s death, she ends up being her own demise because of the internal issues she struggles with, the cultural norms she has to live by, and the overwhelming toll on her heart when she saw her husband.
When the news of Mr. Mallard’s death came back to Louise, she was in disbelief. She had trouble identifying how to feel, at first, until reality sank in. Her abnormal response to receiving the news of her husband’s death and the lack of emotions suggests she struggled with the news. At one point in the story, the narrator exclaims, “Free! Body and soul free!” (129) From Lawrence Berkove’s perspective, this implies that “there is a significance with Louise and that she wants to ‘live for herself.’ It could also be commonly interpreted that she had to sacrifice her own freedom to her husband” (234). The reaction Louise had at the news of her husband’s death revealed that she likely had been subjected to the oppression of her husband’s authority. Her undiagnosed mental health disorder exacerbates Louise’s struggle with her internal issues, which demonstrates her indecisiveness to not leave her husband contributes to her own demise.
“Legally and culturally, however, the lives of women were still much constrained when compared with those of men, and Chopin’s story reflects both these constraints and the growing desire of many women for ‘liberation’ of various kinds” (“Introduction”). In “The Story of an Hour,” Chopin thoroughly explains these ideals that women had to live by during the nineteenth century by stating, “There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself” (Chopin 129). The severity of the restraint that Louise experienced while she was married to Mr. Mallard was evident by the enthusiasm she expressed in the minutes following the news of her husband’s death. In the nineteenth century, many women were trying to escape the social norms that were imposed upon them during the time. According to Michael O’Malley, “Some argued that women should concentrate on the home and domesticity—that women had an especially loving and gentle nature, and that they were naturally suited to child care and to the ‘domestic arts’ of decoration and nurture.” O’Malley continues by stating, “The man’s world was understood as tough, rational, self-advancing, competitive, and harsh, and the woman’s world was soft, irrational, emotional, self-sacrificing and loving.” The stigma women faced during the nineteenth century contributed to why Louise felt like she had no control during the duration of her marriage to Mr. Mallard. Because the nineteenth century was viewed as a “man’s world,” the lack of worth that a woman’s role played in society led to the death of Louise.
Near the end of the story, Chopin reveals that Louise’s husband all along was not dead. Chopin mentions, “[Someone] was opening the front door with a latch key. It was Brently Mallard who entered, a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his gripsack and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of the accident, and did not even know there had been one” (Chopin 130). When Brently Mallard walked in the door, Richard tried to shield him from Louise. Unfortunately, Richard was too late. According to the doctors, Louise had passed away “of heart disease—of joy that kills” (130). Chopin’s description of the moment that Louise finds out her husband is not dead after all implies how serious Louise had taken the news. During the duration of Louise’s marriage to Mr. Mallard, Louise dealt with a lot of emotional highs and lows, which likely led to her development of heart disease.
The oppression Louise experienced during the nineteenth century played a role in her inability to speak up for herself. Louise likely dealt with an undiagnosed mental health disorder because of the stigma that women faced during the time period. Louise’s underlying heart disorder added to the shock she experienced when she saw her husband. The contributing factors that ultimately led to Louise’s own demise are: the internalization of her personal issues, the cultural standards, the development of her heart disease, the overwhelming news of her husband’s supposed death, and the shock she experienced when she saw him alive led to her experiencing a heart attack.
Berkove, Lawrence L. “Fatal Self-Assertion in Kate Chopin’s the Story of an Hour.” American Literary Realism 32.2 (Winter 2000): 152-158. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Janet Witalec. Vol. 127. Detroit: Gale, 2002. 20th Century Literature Criticism Online. Web. 15 Nov. 2016.
Chopin, Kate. “The Story of an Hour.” Portable Literature Reading, Reacting, Writing. Ed. Kirszner and Mandell. 9th ed. Massachusetts: Cengage Learning, 2015. 128-130. Print.
“Introduction to Literary Context: American Short Fiction.” Literary Reference Center Plus. N.p., 1 Nov. 2014. Web. 15 Nov. 2016.
O’Malley, Michael. “Women and Equality.” Exploring US History. George Mason University, Apr. 2004. Web. 16 November 2016.