Leonardo Da Vinci
Drawings Of Future Possibilities By Leonardo Da Vinci
Drawings are a vital part of an engineers job as they allow for the communication of ideas between engineers or even other individuals. Engineering drawings have allowed for people to visualize potential ideas and also how to improve upon them by showing them to others. These engineering drawings have allowed or people to even think through drawing as it allows for new ideas or concepts to come from older ones. This allows for drawing to give feelings to others and make them think about them more. This is not just shown through engineering drawings, but also with paintings or works of art done by artists as they allow for people understand or feel through different ways. Examples such as “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte” by Georges Seurat which give off a calm and relaxed mood through how the painting is shown or painting like “A Starry Night” by Vincent van Gogh which shows people the beauty of the night by representing it through the starts and the sky of the painting. Through the use of drawings and paintings, we are able to see things in a new light whether it be good or bad.
One person who was able to capture this concept perfectly was the famous inventor, engineer and artist Leonardo da Vinci. One of the most well known and most famous people today from the time of the Renaissance, Leonardo was ahead of his time with his amazing ideas and concepts such as the idea of flight which no one had thought of during that point in history. While Leonardo was known for his amazing intellect, he was also known for one other thing, the creation of the Mona Lisa, the most beautiful and priceless piece of art ever created. To this day, many consider this to be Leonardo’s greatest achievement due to it being so amazingly painted. With him creating the Mona Lisa, we were able to see even more of Leonardo’s amazing intelligence and how it has greatly contributed to some of technology developed in the past decades. With Leonardo being able to create such an amazing painting, this also showed his talent in creating engineering drawings and sketches.
Leonardo da Vinci has greatly impacted the world with his drawings of future possibilities. Leonardo’s engineering drawings have allowed for some people o take inspiration from his ideas such as Leonardo’s concept for a flying machine. When Leonardo was a child, he was fascinated by birds and how they could fly like any other kid and this caused a spark of interest in him in order to make the first machine which would allow him to fly. Although he had later determined that it was impossible with the technology he had at his disposal. Due to his, Leonardo made sketches of different designs for different flying machines such as a machine that had bird like cloth wings or a primitive helicopter design with a screw on the top to help it slowly descend. Although these were just concepts at the time, these ideas were so detailed and complex that it would allow for the wright brother to create the first machine that is able to fly. His drawing of flight have gone even further as it also allowed for different designs of machines to be made such as the primitive helicopter design with the spiral on top would later help to achieve the making of an actual helicopter with replacing the spiral top with fans that would spin at high speeds or the winged design would help to make a proper airplane. With these designs of possible solutions or ideas for the concept of flight, Leonardo was able to pass down his dream on cracking the code for allowing people to fly across the skies like how he saw the birds when he was younger. Because of his artistic skills as a painter, he was able to make such amazing an complex drawing that no one during that time would be able to make and allow them to represent or allow others to understand ideas or ways of thinking through these drawings.
Leonardo did not stop there with his ideas, but even started to think further or idea that people would think were fantasies. One of these ideas was the concept of a moving suit of armor. With this concept. Leonardo had thought of a something that would be considered crazy to anyone else during the time, however was something that was accomplished. With drawing of pulleys and gears in one of his journals, Leonardo had the concept of making a robot that would move according to how a pulley was pulled or how a gear was turned and would follow corresponding movement of those simple actions. This could be considered a renaissance robot as it was able to do simple things that normal robots can do such as move their hands and sit down, this could be considered a technological breakthrough as this was something amazing for the time of the renaissance. While Leonardo’s robot has not survived since that time, engineers have recreated the robot through journals left behind by Leonardo composing of his various of drawings of the human anatomy and the robots design and how it functioned. With this information, the robot was made and has been able to function just like what the original was intended to do. From this we can see how in depth Leonardo made his engineering design concepts for today’s society to be able to make Leonardo’s inventions today.
Due to Leonardo making such in depth and detailed engineering drawings, this starts to set a standard for all engineers on how well and informed their drawings should be. We see this because of how many different methods and ways there are to making design drawings. Examples such as different line like visible, hidden and center which help to show different parts of a idea with showing parts that are normally hidden from sight. Other examples like the use of three dimensional and two dimensional views which put into perspective on how the finished product should look like and what the overall shape of the product is. While both do provide the same purpose of showing the shape of the object, each provides more than that. Three dimensional views allow for engineers to visualize objects easier and help to show how to object is intended to look like and this is also shown in Leonardo’s journals with him showing how his flying machine and military inventions would look like, two dimensional views help to provide the dimensions and help to show details on specific sides of the objects. While there are many different two dimensional views, they all help to provide the same concept of showing the details and can even be seen in Leonardo’s journal with things such as gears and pulley systems. L
eonardo’s drawing have been able to set a standard or methods of drawing and this shows how he has impacted the engineering society more than just showing his inventions, but rather showing how to draw or design their own inventions. Leonardo’s drawings have made a huge impact upon the engineering society due to his amazing artistic abilities as shown through famous paintings such as the “Mona Lisa” or “The Last Supper”. His amazing artistic abilities have allowed for engineers to understand his great mind of how he has built many technological marvels like his flying machine which can be considered the first ideological attempt at flight and Leonardo’s robot which is ahead of its time. These amazing inventions have all been shown through Leonardo’s journals which consist of many drawing for many other great inventions. His drawing have even allowed for many great inventions to be explored, but also allowed for today’s society to set a method with today’s drawing methods.
Leonardo has greatly impacted the world, whether it be during his time in the renaissance or during today’s modern age. With his great artistic abilities, we can say that Leonardo was an amazing engineer or even the greatest engineer that the world knows about. This can first be proven through his ability to be able to make amazing painting which help to provide understanding or feelings. This can be shown through his most famous paintings, the “Mona Lisa” and the “The Last Supper”. The “Mona Lisa” helps to show a meaning or understanding of beauty as it is regarded as the most beautiful painting in today’s age and potentially for many more centuries to come. “The Last Supper” provided more of a religious feelings for christians specifically because of how he related to jesus before his crucifixion. Both these painting show not only Leonardo’s artistic ability, but also his way of sharing ideas. This is further shown in his journals with drawings of inventions like his idea of a flying machine or his robot. These drawing allow for the understanding of his ideas and provide the ability to actually be made years later due to the amount of detail in his drawings.
Not only do his drawings help to share ideas or on how to build his inventions, but they have also helped to set a standard on how to make these drawings and what methods to use. These drawing have allowed for many great and impactful changes to engineering as it allows for us to not only understand from Leonardo da Vinci, but be able to learn from him and adapt his methods. This helps to show how great of an engineer and further proves why he should be regarded as not only the most famous engineer, but one of the world’s greatest engineers.
The Life, Works Impact, and Success of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo Da Vinci was an inspirational and impactful artist that is still affecting modern art to this day. One has to wonder, where did this genius come from? Da Vinci was a very ambitious and an almost too curious man. A wide variety of his works were even illegal and he did them just for the sake of learning. Few people also know that Da Vinci was a perfectionist, and only published his best and completed works. At the time of his death, according to The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Da Vinci had “almost 2,500” unpublished drawings, at the time of his death. (Carmen)
Da Vinci’s utter curiosity derived from his “long quest for truth”. A vast majority of his works focused on proving how life works, as opposed to most artists in this time attempting to express life. How curious was Da Vinci? Well, when it comes to risk, Da Vinci did not fall short of this mark. On a number of recorded occasions, it is said that he would exhume and dissect the remains of deceased people. During the renaissance period, the time of Da Vinci, the cutting of the human body was strictly prohibited. This law was based on the grounds of the Catholic Church, in attempts to not affect the deceased’s afterlife. Luckily, Da Vinci never got caught, and his curiosity wasn’t his demise.
Da Vinci’s personality was a huge factor in his success as an artist. Like the cadavers, he was the first person to actually do that. By a stroke of luck, he wasn’t ridiculed for the oddities that he considered everyday life, but this isn’t what made him a great artist. The failed attempts that made him keep going are what made hi8m a great artist. He may have had tons of work that was never “good” enough, but he kept trying until he got an amazing final result.
Leonardo Lead a very difficult childhood that did not define who he was as a person. Instead of going to many schools to expand his knowledge, Da Vinci taught a majority of the information that he learned to himself. This development that he was succumbed to was crucial to his success. It allowed him to learn only what he cared to learn, and ignore the rest. Why is this important? His life was full of new things that never lost interest to him, and that was most likely a reason for his great success.
His home life was not the greatest, but he amounted to great things. The reason he is such an inspiration to many of today’s artists is not because of his works alone, but because of the circumstances that he was under while accomplishing great things. If people can learn to do this today like Da Vinci did in the past, there would be an explosion of greatness. Da Vinci kept to what he loved to do, and eventually found great success in doing so.
The Secret of Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci
The transition movement that took place between the 14th and 17th century in Italy is known as the Renaissance time or by definition “rebirth”. The philosophy that took place in the period is one of the humanism or the focus on the human being. One of the master artists of this time is Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) and one of the paintings that best represents the philosophy and art of this period is the Mona Lisa.
The philosophy of humanism brought on a time where the focus was on the human being. The previous philosophy of the medieval time was more focused on biblical motivation, whereas humanism was not. Humanism stood for the; ” the emergence of the individual figure, in place of stereotyped or symbolic figure, greater realism and consequent attention to detail, as reflected in the development of linear perspective and increased realism of human faces and bodies” (High Renaissance Art. (n.d)).The artist of the Renaissance time kept up with the spirit of humanism by portraying lifelike human forms with the realistic clothing, and expression and correct proportion. A new three-dimensional form was created with new techniques. The natural landscape began to appear as the background as a transition from the figures of heaven against a gold background.
Realism and idealism are other concepts that were used in the Renaissance time and one could say that Leonardo Da Vinci mastered them. Realism or portraying subjects as they really were accomplished by: forms, colors, proportions, lights and shade effects, spatial harmony and composition. Leonardo’s background in science, drafting, sculpting and architecture all helped in every portion of his painting of the Mona Lisa (The Mona Lisa, (n.d.)). Idealism was the idea of portraying subjects, as they should be.
The Mona Lisa was a painting that Leonardo Da Vinci was working on in between the years of 1503-1506; some believe the painting was still never finished by his death in 1519. The Mona Lisa clearly represents the philosophy of the humanism by representing the focus of the human being and realism. It also shows nature as shown in the background behind the figure in the painting. The main focus of the Mona Lisa falls actually on the person in the picture. In previous medieval art the figures in the portrait were pictured in profiles and were stiff. Mona Lisa is painted in a relaxed three-quarter pose and cropped in contrast to the norm of full-length portraits. Whereas pictures previously had the figure in the painting adorned with jewels and decorations the Mona Lisa is simple and free of any jewelry. The woman’s hair is smooth and only has a simple veil (which may be a symbol of chastity); her hands are relaxed and free of bracelets and rings. Only the folds of her robe or dress are present (Mona Lisa, painted from 1503-1507, (n.d.)) as well as the lace-topped dress she is wearing.
The Mona Lisa’s main focus is on the face of the painting. The techniques of chiaroscuro, using lights and darks and sfumato (blending one tone to another) or the illusion of corners that allows the imagination to see the area in a different way, was introduced and used by Da Vinci in his painting (Mona Lisa painted from 1503-1507, (n.d.)). These techniques, that were achieved by using oil paints, were used on the face and the hands to make the person appear to be more real and almost as if she has movement. The smile that is so famous and adds to the mystery of her mood is also achieved by these techniques. While some viewers see the woman smiling others see her without a smile.
The pyramid design, which was commonly used, also helps the viewer to focus on the women. It is believed that the pyramid gives a representation of giving tribute to the father, the son and the Holy Spirit. Mona Lisa’s pose is that of a pyramid shape with her head, shoulders and hands (Mona Lisa, La Giaconda, (n.d.)). There is also a glow on the face, neck and hands that puts an emphasis on those.Leonardo painted a true representation of the women of the time. The woman’s face is free of facial hair including her eyebrows. At this time it was common for women of the time to pluck their eyebrows because some feel they were unsightly. When Leonarod did this it makes the person very real (Mona Lisa, La Giaconda, (n.d.).The woman seems to be seated in a chair on some sort of balcony. The pillars to the side of the balcony almost form a frame to the figure behind the woman is a landscaped background.
The figure in the painting is emphasized by the light and dark tones of the wardrobe as well as the background. The face and body have lighter tones on them with smooth lines; gone are the days of outlined figures. The background does not reflect heaven or spiritual symbols but that of nature, which was another emphasis of the time. The curves in the background with the paths, rivers and mountains are a small reflection of the curves in her hair and clothes. It is believed that Da Vinci was working on “some of his finest sketches of plant life and nature” (Mona Lisa, painted from 1503-1507, (n.d.)), when he worked on the painting.
Some hints of yellow and gold are used in the winding paths behind the figure. The landscape in the background showing mountains, trees and water are painted in cooler blues and greens. There is a sense of depth and form because the picture becomes hazier as the landscape progresses backwards. Also, with this technique, the figure in the painting appears closer to the viewer and puts more emphasis on her because of the scenery.
Leonardo Da Vinci may be considered one of the greatest artists of all times. Leonardo was a true master of the Renaissance time reflecting the philosophy of the time that being humanism and the emphasis of the human being. The Mona Lisa is a painting that shows such a philosophy of humanism. With the colors used, the shading and blending of the paints, Da Vinci could make the viewer focus on the human. The woman is very simple with no elaborate clothes or jewelry to take away from her, with a reserved posture. The background is that of nature, which another focus of the time was. The landscape showing depth helps the viewer focus on the women. The Mona Lisa is a true masterpiece of the Renaissance time. With Leonardo Da Vinci’s use of his techniques of sfumato and chiaroscuro he was able to make his figure of the women truly reflect the philosophies of the time. Mona Lisa appears to be a real woman with both depth and movement.
he Anatomic Drawing of Leonardo Da Vinci
The documentary was on Leonardo Da Vinci and as the pioneer of anatomic drawing during the Renaissance period. The documentary displays the artistic qualities of Da Vinci and the multi-talented aspects of his skills that made him among the great people of that period. He was a person of many activities and did put his hand in almost everything of that time. He was a mechanical engineering who could be able to design and build bridges and gates. He was therefore responsible for the construction of notable gates and bridges of his time. Additionally, he was a great painter who could be able to articulate his thoughts through drawing. It is his great painting skills that led him into drawing the famous Monalisa painting that has remained to be an amusement to date. The main focus of the documentary, however, was on him as the only person who was able to dissect the body of humans and going further and draw exactly what he saw. Being a mechanical engineer, he was focused on establishing the mechanical mechanism of the body and how it works and that is why he was able to draw all the individual body and muscles of the body. He was also able to define the almost all location of the body parts and lastly, he was able to draw the heart of the human body and its working phenomena defining the task of each vein and artery and even stating categorically that the heart was made of four chambers something many scientists had been wrong for many years (Stew, 2015).
The video was published on YouTube on the 28th of April, 2015 by Haw Stew. However, the actual producer who was also the director was Matina Hall of BBC Scotland Arts Production.
Relation of the Video with the Class
There is a very close relationship between the facts in the video and the class work on the Renaissance and Reformation. The period was marked by numerous discoveries as far as Siece was of concern. However, it was still difficult for physicians to have the accurate solution to some other serious medical conditions and operation because they had no ample information regarding the working mechanism of the body. Da Vinci’s work was the breakthrough of that time. It allowed people to understand the internal working mechanism of the body and subsequently the location of different body parts and how they relate to each other (Stew, 2015).
Something surprisingly Learned
The most astonishing thing about this documentary is on Da Vinci himself. I have always associated him with art through his famous Monalisa painting. I was caught by surprise, realizing that he was also a Mechanical Engineer and also played such a big role in human anatomy, a field for physicians.
The Success of the Documentary
The documentary has been successful as far as the presentation of facts is of concern. There have been a series of evidence trying to prove how accurate Da Vinci’s drawings. However, it was inaccurate stating that Da Vinci’s drawings were not used for over 400 years because they were not printed. There are many scientists of that time that used Da Vinci’s work in the undertaking of their research and this is proof enough that his work was very useful during his time.
2. Inside the Body of King Henry VIII
About the Video
“Inside the body of King Henry VIII” is a documentary that at defining the possible cause of death of this King, whom, according to historians, he was the most physically table king of all the Kings. In accordance with the facts in the documentary, King Henry was from the Tudor lineage, which was not that might on its own. However, the rise of King, who had the “right” definition of a king physically made this lineage feel represented. This got into the head of the king who used any possible opportunity to physical prowess. This was also important since it made England appear as a strong diplomatic friend internationally. He loved joist as his main sport. It is, in fact, said that the, he experienced in a jousting competition was his final fall because it was only his body armor that cautioned him from the severity of the accident and after that, he was not himself no more. However, poor hygiene, physical injuries from the sporting events which he took part in, the inherited diseases, poor diet and subsequently his fatigued immune system led to his eventual death, the death of the strongest king who died without having a male hair (Harodl, 2013).
Posted on YouTube on November 19th, 2013 by Henry Harold, the documentary is produced and directed by Duja Noack and is a product of the National Discovery Channel.
Relation of the Video with the Class
The video has a direct bearing on what was learned in the class. The video was for the era before the Renaissance and Reformation era where scientific discoveries and inventions aimed at making the life of people easier and safer. The video showcased the pathetic health conditions of the people prior to this era. There were hygiene problems such that even the King could not drink water and thus forced to alcohol and wine. More so, there was a challenge in diagnosing the diseases that the people suffer from and that is why it was difficult to save the king. When amputating was the only way out, it was impossible for it to be carried out because of the lack of the necessary tools (Harodl, 2013). The video was, therefore, an indication of the health challenges faced by the people, which were rectified, to a greater extent through the Renaissance and Reformation.
Something surprisingly Learned
Despite him being a King, I was very shocked that there were many illnesses throughout his life that went undetected. I was expecting him, as is the King, he should be taken under continuous health checks such that the tuberculosis which had even claimed his brother, and even hampered the health of her first wife, should not have gone undetected. Additionally, the documentary has shown that the Tudor era medics/ physicians only relied on the Roman health techniques which were a technique used several years back. However, the extent of the growth of the English kingdom should have had its own means of treatment, and through this, there could have been a possibility of the King having got the medication that he needed.
The Success of the Documentary
The video was successfully done. The facts were very well presented and the facts were well tested and this led to convincing results which make the documentary scientific viable and conclusive.
3. Mankind the History of All of us
About the documentary
The documentary is about the initial implications of the Reformation and the Renaissance which happened to affect the whole of Europe. This was a period of the awakening of Europe. Europe had been active and powerful prior to the rise of the Romans. However, the Romans happened to overpower them and this led to the demise of Europe. After the fall of Rome, Europe emerges once again and that is why the period is known as the Renaissance. The video shows how important the ship technology was which subsequently led to the expansion of international trade. The video shows how the growth of the Turks happened after the fall of Constantinople and how hard it became for the Europeans to trade with the Islamic Turks who had close down the trade route to far Asia which was a very important route for the trading of spices. More importantly is the entrance of European to the modern-day America, which was by accident since sailors were looking for a new trading route around Africa towards Asia. This coincidence led to the spread of European civilization to America (Block, 2016).
The documentary was posted by Burt Block on 30th December 2016. However, the real owners of the documentary were Ben Goold and Jane Root, who were the actual producers through the Film Afrika Worldwide and Dune films.
The Documentary Relationship with class work
The Renaissance era was a period that took place in fragments over long periods of time. Notably, most of the people were not even aware that these changes were happening. One major sign that Europe was through a session of being reborn is that there was a need to increase her wealth and this could only be attained through trading. It w for trading purposes that the other unknown routes to the Far East were being searched for and this led to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope. Another quest for reaches was treasure and Columbus was certain that there was a land beyond the Mediterranean and this land was full of treasures. This opened up America to the rest of the world (Block, 2016).
Surprising fact about the documentary
I have always known Christopher Columbus as being the first English man who “discovered” America. I have been reading lots of books since grade school that he was the first person to set sail into this land. I was, however, shocked to realize that it was Thor Vold Erickson, a Viking who was the first person from Europe to set reach this place. The documentary states that he was killed with all his men and am still not sure who kept a record of him sailing there.
The success of the documentary
The documentary is very well directed to offer the best chronology of events as they happened all through history. However, there is a slight debate that is still up for debate. The documentary states that the Aztec civilization was in existence way too long before the Egyptian civilization. I have come upon different readings with others stating that Egyptian civilization existed before the Aztec’s. This is an area worth researching since I am of the stand that both civilizations existed almost during a similar period but the Egyptian civilization ended sooner.
A Comparison of the Works of Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo
One Body, Multiple Meanings
Without a doubt, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are two of the most influential artists in the history of modern civilizations. With their array of detailed and accurate works, both da Vinci and Michelangelo are both regarded as two of the best artists ever. But despite these apparent similarities and comparisons, the specific method each studied the human body resulted in highly different approaches to portraying the human body. In rendering these human bodies in different forms, both artists projected certain messages through these depictions. But while da Vinci was deeply influenced by painting and drawing, Michelangelo was more of a sculptor at his roots, and rarely preferred painting. However, both were fascinated with the human body, and studied it intensely through dissections to better understand them. Yet despite their similar fascination with the human body, how each studied it resulted in a different manifestation within their respective artwork.
Leonardo da Vinci was incredibly invested in drawing and painting perfect representations of the human body. From studying previous anatomists such as Galen and Hippocrates to dissecting his own human bodies, da Vinci was focused on perfection. However, what makes da Vinci unique is that he not only used anatomy to facilitate his own art, but also as a science. As Domenico Laurenza would say, “ he was both an artist and a scientist, in the fullest sense” (Laurenza 10) What this meant is that da Vinci not only used dissections to look at muscle structure and things useful to his artwork, but also to analyze the human body as a whole. In fact, several anatomical discoveries are credited to da Vinci for his work in what we still use in contemporary anatomy. As Laurenza says, “With Leonardo, artists’ interest in anatomy reached its zenith, yet at the same time artistic anatomy became something completely different from what it had been earlier in the Renaissance—that is, substantially the study of the muscles and skeleton as part of the process of representing the nude in art” (Laurenza 11). For da Vinci, these dissections were not only for understanding the microscopic mechanisms of the body, but the macroscopic mechanisms as well. Not only did he study the heart, blood veins, muscles; he also studied how these were all interconnected. That is, part of da Vinci’s dissection involved understanding how separate organisms made up the whole. As da Vinci’s own notes detail in describing the tendons in a nick, “First you shall make the spine of the neck with its tendons like a mast of a ship with its rigging, without the head; then make the head with its tendons which give its motion upon its pole.” It’s clear that to da Vinci, not only were the small minute details important, but also their role in the larger whole. As Otto Benesch states, “ The artist and the scientist are interdependent. Leonardo possessed not only the masculine sovereign and creative power, but also the feminine gift of highest empathy. He lived in the heart of things. His drawings prove that he felt like the object which he portrayed, that he identified himself with it. He looked at the world from the center, from the matrix, and it became diaphanous to him in an almost magic clearness” (Benesch 327).
Looking at da Vinci’s work, this concept is very clear. Rather than exaggerate proportions for dramatic effect, da Vinci wanted exactness and preciseness. In studying the human body, da Vinci looked for more than to simply improve his art. Rather, for him, studying anatomy helped him gain a larger understanding of the world as a whole. Art was simply a tool to help Leonardo achieve that goal. Laurenza furthers, stating that “Leonardo produced the most complex and sophisticated anatomical representation of all time. That this perfection contained its own limits, however, is exemplified by a set of drawings of strictly scientific scope, with no artificial poses or indeed even landscape” (Laurenza 13). For example, what makes the Vitruvian Man so unique are the specific proportions of the body. Encased within both a circle and a square, da Vinci demonstrates the proportionality of each body part, and how each section relates to the others. Compared to other versions in his time, which usually distorted the body to make it fit within the circle and square, da Vinci understood the specific proportions necessary. As demonstrated in his notes, “If you open the legs so as to reduce the stature by one-fourteenth and open and raise your arms so that your middle fingers touch the line through the top of the head, know that the centre of the extremities of the outspread limbs will be the umbilicus, and the space between the legs will make an equilateral triangle”. As such it’s clear that through his examination of the human body, Leonardo da Vinci sought more than to just supplement his art. Instead, da Vinci saw the human body as a representation of the world, and looked at it in a macroscopic view.
While da Vinci was primarily a painter and drawer, Michelangelo vastly preferred sculpting to all others. As opposed to da Vinci using art as a method to find greater meaning in the world, Michelangelo’s goal was to understand the meaning of art itself. As such, his anatomical study revolved around using it to supplement his art. Uninterested with what lay inside the human body and how it functioned, Michelangelo focused on external anatomy, that is, the muscles and contours of the human body. He looked at the form of the body, how the underlying muscles and skeleton contributed to movement and appearance. It is because of this Michelangelo produced primarily nudes. As Laurenza states, “Anatomy for Michelangelo consisted above all of the careful study of these metamorphoses of form… and when he made studies and drawings of dissected bodies what was foremost in his mind was always the nude: the body clothed in skin, alive and in motion” (Laurenza 14). As such it’s clear that Michelangelo’s approach to dissections and anatomy was centered around his art, and was entirely based around the body itself, rather than a greater meaning or representation.
When looking at Michelangelo’s work, the difference from da Vinci’s approach becomes clear. While da Vinci was very much focused on proportion, Michelangelo regularly exaggerated perspective and size to give his art a larger meaning. Instead of everything being perfectly anatomically representative, his works were adjusted depending on what he wanted to get across. For example, looking at Michelangelo’s Pieta, not everything is perfectly proportioned. In relation to Jesus Christ, The Virgin Mary is abnormally large, especially since the Pieta depicts Jesus as a grown man after he has been crucified. Furthermore, scholars have noted that the positioning of Jesus’ body is slightly inconsistent with those of an actual cadaver. Indeed, as Joseph Lombardo details, “the right hand of Jesus and the lower extremities prove that Jesus is alive. The right hand clasps a fold of the Madonna’s draperies between the parted second and third fingers, a fear impossible for a body in rigor mortis” (Hilloowala 88). As Michelangelo had studied anatomical structure very closely, it’s very unlikely Michelangelo simply “messed up”. Rather, Hilloowala argues that the Pieta is actually a Madonna and Child in the form of a Pieta. In doing so, it becomes representative of Michelangelo’s feelings during the time he produced the Pieta. As Hilloowala discusses, “The most profound and driving emotion in Michelangelo’s life was the early terror of maternal disappearances. This prompted a lifelong quest for the reconciliation of mother and son” (Hilloowala 91). As such, it’s clear in looking at the Pieta that Michelangelo used anatomy as a function of art, manipulating it at will to introduce his own latent feelings.
Both Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci were prominent artists, each with their own successes. And while both developed their art styles with a great interest in anatomy and the human body, how each studied it resulted in different manifestations of the same thing. For Leonardo, the end goal was not art. Rather, art and anatomy were tools used hand in hand to gain a greater meaning to the microcosm. As such, he studied the intricacies of how each organ and vein interacted with each other to gain a greater understanding of the whole, which manifested itself in his artwork as rigid, scientific proportions with no room for error. However, in contrast, Michelangelo saw art as the end, with anatomy simply a tool to get there. He was focused on the form of the body, how the body changed with movement, and used that to give greater meaning to his artwork. As such, Michelangelo freely changed and manipulated the human body to convey his attitudes and ideas. And while between da Vinci and Michelangelo there is no one “right” way to do things, their different interpretations of the same things show us the complexity of the world. Given the same materials, each individual will create a different thing based on his own goals and perspectives.
Leonardo Da Vinci: Life, Art and Inventions
Leonardo Da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter and tank, he epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. He was known as the renaissance man back in his day and is also known as one of the most talented individuals who ever lived. Da Vinci received no formal education beyond basic reading, writing and math, but his father appreciated his artistic talent and apprenticed him at around age 15 to the noted sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio, of Florence.
For about a decade, da Vinci refined his painting and sculpting techniques and trained in mechanical arts. When he was 20, in 1472, the painters’ guild of Florence offered da Vinci membership, but he remained with Verrocchio until he became an independent master in 1478. Around 1482, he began to paint his first commissioned work, The Adoration of the Magi, for Florence’s San Donato, a Scopeto monastery. Most of his interests is in his artwork. He is most famous for his “Mona Lisa” and “The Last Supper” art.Leonardo Da Vinci had the mechanical expertise as his area. Leonardo created his robot to prove to himself that a human beings body could be imitated. He also built it to showcase it in working mode at parties for his patron Lodovico Sforz. Da Vinci’s robot would have been the highlight of the party with Leonardo at the helm cranking the robot to move. Leonardo used his initial studies of anatomy and kinaesthetics to design the robot. His creation was to show that the human body is a machine in structure and that it’s intricate movements could be imitated with the use of engineering machine parts such as levers and pulleys. He sketched the first parachute, first helicopter, first aeroplane, first tank, first repeating rifle, swinging bridge, paddle boat and first motor car. Da Vinci designed machines of war as well.
Leonardo had many concepts of the inventions. Some of these include the parachute, helicopter, machine gun, and the robotic knight. His natural genius crossed so many disciplines that he epitomized the term “Renaissance man.” Today he remains best known for his art, including two paintings that remain among the world’s most famous and admired, Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Art, da Vinci believed, was indisputably connected with science and nature. It can be said that Leonardo Da Vinci was a man who thought well ahead of his time. With his numerous inventions, he had been able to create many firsts. Not just an artist known for his technique called sfumato, Da Vinci designed several contraptions, some of which are still used today Some include scissors, parachutes, diving gear, and the machine gun. Without Leonardo, the world wouldn’t have an artistic perspective.
The Life and Brilliance of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci: The Genius
Genius and artist, Leonardo da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452 in Anchiano, Tuscany (now Italy). This town was close to the town of Vinci, Italy so that is how he got his surname. His parents’ names were Ser Piero, an attorney and Caternia, a peasant woman (Biography.com). According to the History.com Staff, da Vinci’s parents were never married to each other. At a young age of Leonardo’s life, both of his parents began new lives with other partners. He had a total of 17 half-siblings. Leonardo received little education besides basic reading, math, and writing. Anyone could see his artistic ability starting at an early age.
At just the age of 14 Leonardo began an apprenticeship with Andrea del Verrocchio, an artist from Florence, Italy. In this apprenticeship, he learned a lot of different technical skills that helped him with his later works. These skills included metalworking, leather arts, carpentry, drawing, painting and sculpting. 1473 is the year of his earliest known work. This was a “pen-and-ink drawing of a landscape in the Arno Valley” (Biography.com).
At the age of 20 Leonardo was offered a membership in Florence’s Guild of Saint Luke by the painters. Even though this was a great opportunity for him he declined the offer to continue to work with Verrocchio for five more years. Around the year of 1482 da Vinci started his first piece that was going to be for sale. This work was called the “Adoration of the Magi.” It was for the Augustinian monks of Florence’s San Donato, which was a Scopeto monastery (Biography.com). According to the History.com Staff, Leonardo never finished that piece because Lorenzo de’ Medici—the Florentine ruler, told him to “create a silver lyre and bring it as a peace gesture” to the ruler of Milan. Shortly after this, he relocated there to work for the Sforza clan. He worked mostly as an engineer and designer while sketching war machines for them. He stayed to work in Milan for 17 years.
While still in Milan during the 1480s Leonardo not only studied art but also science. According to Biography.com, he is not the only artist who did this and “did not see a divide between science and art. He viewed the two as intertwined disciplines rather than separate ones. He believed studying science made him a better artist.” Da Vinci believed that the eyes are a human’s most important organ because sight is the most important sense. According to the History.com Staff, he did not finish a lot of his works because he would spend more time studying “nature, testing scientific laws, and dissecting bodies (human and animal).” While studying these subjects he would write in notebooks about his observations. There were four different notebooks that he filled with information that he discovered. The topics were on painting, architecture, mechanics and human anatomy. According to Biography.com, Leonardo’s drawings on human anatomy are among the first on record. One of his most famous works that is well known is his sketch of a man with his arms and legs spread apart inside a circle and a square, this is called the “Vitruvian Man.” This piece of work is an example of when art and science intertwine perfectly.
Another two of the world’s most known artworks were created by da Vinci during the years of 1495 to about 1506. These paintings are known as “The Last Supper” and the “Mona Lisa.” In Milan during the years of 1495 to about 1498 is when “The Last Supper” was worked on. It was created for the dining hall in the Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, otherwise known as “The Cenacle.” This work of art is a depiction of the “Passover dinner during which Jesus Christ addresses the Apostles” (History.com Staff). In the depiction, Jesus is centered with the 12 Apostles surrounding him. Leonardo returned to Florence during the year of 1503, from this year to about 1506 is when the “Mona Lisa” was worked on. Still to this day, the “Mona Lisa” is a mysterious subject. No one truly knows who she really is. “In the past, she was often thought to be Mona Lisa Gherardini, a courtesan, but current scholarship indicates that she was Lisa del Giocondo, wife of Florentine merchant Francisco del Giocondo” (History.com Staff). People have come up with this latest theory because the original Italian name of the painting is “La Gioconda” (Biography.com). Today, the “Mona Lisa” is the only portrait painted by Leonard da Vinci himself that has survived. It is being held at the Louvre Museum in Paris, France (History.com Staff).
After completing the “Mona Lisa” in 1506 Leonardo da Vinci returned to Milan to work for the French rulers. A young aristocrat named Francesco Melzi who was one of da Vinci’s students became his companion for the rest of his life. 1513 is the year when he ended up by leaving the city of Milan again to move to Rome. In Rome, da Vinci spent little time doing artwork and more time studying mathematics and science. After Leonardo received an offer from King Francis I to have the title “Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect to the King,” he left Italy for good in the year 1516 and moved to France. In France, da Vinci lived in the Château de Cloux. Leonardo’s last recorded work was a mechanical lion. This artwork was special because it could move, it walked and the chest was able to open. Inside its chest there was a bouquet of lilies that could be revealed. Some suggest that his final years were not happy years because of how bitter he was with some situations. Leonardo da Vinci died at the young age of 67 on the 2nd of May in the year 1519. His best companion, Francesco Melzi, inherited his estate in France (Biography.com). According to the History.com Staff, Leonardo was buried near the church of Saint-Florentin. Still, to this day, Leonardo da Vinci is not only known as an artist but also a genius for his astonishing works such as “The Last Supper” and the “Mona Lisa” and for his amazing findings in human anatomy, engineering, mathematics, mechanics, painting, and architecture.
The Life and Contributions of Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci was a one of a kind talent that the world may never see again. His inquisitive nature and desire to learn helped him achieve some of the most marvelous works that mankind has ever seen. He was a painter, sculpture, architect, and an engineer amongst many other things. Throughout his life, Leonardo contributed to humanity in so many different areas that many scholars and historians to this day refer to him as a “universal genius”.
How we know about him
There are many sources that claim that Leonardo was a mysterious man and that there is a lot that we don’t know about him as a person, “…his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, while the man himself mysterious and remote”. However, it seems that this myth has been debunked by the overwhelming evidence. Robert Payne says in his book that “the only mystery is how he was able to accomplish so many works of genius in so short a time”. Before his death, Leonardo left around ten thousand pages (about five thousand survive today) manuscripts of his life. He was not an introvert person at all, he would voice his thoughts in his notes and stated that they should be preserved and published. As if that wasn’t enough, he also explained exactly how he wanted them to be published. We have a very good idea as to where and what Leonardo was doing for the majority of his life, and there are also existing records in Florence, Rome, Milan, and many other places that help cover those missing gaps.
Other evidence comes from the works of Giorgio Vasari, a mid-sixteenth century midcore painter who took it upon himself to document the lives of the greatest Italian artists. Much of what we know about Italian artists today derive from his works. His works began to gain success in 1564, where by then he had made a second edition of the Lives in which the new version was larger with more illustrated portraits.
Leonardo was a man who was motivated by curiosity and had a will to succeed in his works, “he accomplished what he set out to accomplish…” He lived what would have been considered to be a full life at the time, dying at the age of sixty-seven. He was also well traveled and achieved many high positions in his lifetime as he cruised through various cities.
The first skill that Leonardo mastered was the art of painting. It is said that he started perhaps as early as the as the age of 14. He also loved animals, he loved them so much that he became a vegetarian and refused to eat them. His favorite of the animals were the horses and he painted them better than any other man before him. He was a diverse man who expanded his knowledge throughout various different fields that include music, literature, history, anatomy, geology, astronomy, and many other areas of science. Leonardo also self-taught himself mathematics later in his life at the age of thirty. Math was perhaps his most useful tool since he had to apply it to most of his works, including the Mona Lisa.
Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452 as a bastard in Anchiano, Tuscany. His father was a well-respected Florentine notary and his mother was a peasant. He was raised by his father and his stepmothers until he moved to his father’s family home in Vinci, where he gets the last name da Vinci (from Vinci) because he was not even worthy of taking his fathers name. He was not expected to be much of anything, specially being born out of wedlock to a father that had multiple children. Most (if not all) of the inheritance would have been passed to his brothers before they ever got to him. Nobody could have foretold that this child would have grown to be the mastermind that would redefine the Renaissance. Outside of basic reading, writing, and mathematical instructions, Leonardo did not really receive that much of an education because his family was not willing to pay for his education.
At fourteen years of age, da Vinci started a long apprenticeship with Andrea del Verrocchio, a recognized artist in the city of Florence. Under his wing, he acquired many skills that influenced his art such as metalworking, carpentry, molding, painting, and drawing. By the time he was twenty, he gained membership in Florence’s Guild of Saint Luke and created his own workshop where he would later hire many apprentices and would make some of them his pupils.
Some of His Positions
In 1578, da Vinci received his first independent commission to reside in a chapel at Palazzo Vecchio. After three years, some monks from the city wanted him to paint “Adoration of the Magi”. Leonardo started the painting but left the city sometime after without ever completing the painting and leaving behind his commission. About a year later after relocating to Milan, Lorenzo de Medici (Florentine ruler) payed him to make a silver lyre and to deliver it to Ludovico Sforza. He served as an engineer, court festival designer, sculptor, architect, and a painter for the Sforza clan until 1499 when they fled due to an invasion by the French.
In 1502 around summer time, Cesare Borgia “…was on a rampage through the Romagna region of northern Italy, brutally seizing city after city in the name of his father, Pope Alexander VI”. Cesare, with his eagerness for power and conquest hired Leonardo as a military engineer due to his great inventing skills (at the risk that Leonardo was known for not finishing tasks that he was payed to do). This has created some (not a lot) of controversy in religious discussions. Some people think that the image of Jesus Christ that is idolized today comes from Leonardo’s images and that it is in fact a depiction of Cesare. Since Cesare was known as the most handsome man alive by some people, Leonardo used his face as a guideline to draw a beautiful Jesus (some say). While many of the sources that make the claim for and against this hypothesis do not seem very reliable, there are some interesting points to take into consideration. But there does not seem to be a whole lot of evidence to make a solid conclusion about this subject. Neither does it seem that interesting.
After the French ruler Francis offered to give Leonardo the title of “Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect to the King” in 1516, he finally left Italy indefinitely. This offer gave da Vinci the freedom to paint and draw at his own comfort while living in a country manor house close to Amboise, France. Melzi, a painter that had accompanied Leonardo in previous trips, went with him. It is said that Leonardo’s final years were not happy ones due to the bitter tone that were seen in some of his correspondence. This was his final destination before his death in 1519.
Some of the Works
Predominantly known for being a painter during his time, two of da Vinci’s most famous paintings are the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. The Mona Lisa is believed to be a painting of the third wife of a merchant named Francesco di Bartolommeo, a wealthy man. She is sitting on a “…marble chair, in that circle of fantastic rocks, as if in some faint light under sea”. The original painting of this art work still exist to this day but it is not really messed with too much for fear that it will suffer further damage. There are many pictures that are similar to the Mona Lisa, but one of the theories as to why this one has gained so much popularity is because perhaps it is one of the few works of Leonardo that was actually finished and managed to survive. The Last Supper on the other hand was a painting that was painted on the wall of a dining room at the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie. It depicts the last meal that Jesus had with his disciples before he prophesized that one of them would betray him, Matthew 26: 23. The painting has been touched up so many times that when we look at it, it is no longer the original painting that Leonardo painted. Even though this painting still survives, it is slowly deteriorating.
Some of Leonardo’s works also include dissections of human and animal bodies. He was curious about how the human body worked and was intrigued by the subject of death. While working at a hospital one day, he was talking to an old man who was on the verge of dying. The man told Leonardo that he had never been sick in his life before. So once he died, Leonardo immediately started to cut the body up to see what are the physical changes that bring death. However, Leonardo had some kind of sympathy in him. He drew a portrait of the old man the way he was before he died as a salute to his living memory “while he was engaging in dismembering the body”. He had kept journals of other bodies that he had dissected as well. Leonardo believed that the eyes were the most useful tool that mankind had, and he would use his eyes to draw everything that he saw when dissecting corpse. Every detail.
As an inventor, Leonardo had great designs that he had drawn up. Some of the designs include tanks, bicycles, parachutes, helicopters, giant crossbows, self-propelled carts, scuba gears, revolving bridges, and much more. Much of his collection of works were lost for some time due to (probably) Leonardo leaving it all to Melzi. Melzi later dies and leaves it all to his son, who gets rid of it by selling it all including Leonardo’s estate.
Despite the fact that Leonardo was a genius, his inventions and discoveries had very little effect on the scientific world since they were never published. Writing them left handed and backwards to the point that they could only be read off a mirror did not help either (though this trick seems pretty cool). If he would have been born in later time period, perhaps he could have had some major influences in the science realm that could have influenced the world today. The only thing that seems to be surprising is that with his very profound love of nature, he never realized the similarities in animals. Perhaps if had more access to travel he could have preceded Darwin in discovering the theory of evolution. Or perhaps he did notice this, but those works of him are lost and just haven’t been found yet.
It should also be noted that Leonardo da Vinci was not a religious man at all. The most interesting thing about him was that during a time where religion was highly influential, he still searched to find the truth about the way nature worked. He “never believed for a moment that the universal deluge of the Bible ever took place”. Despite his several portraits that show Jesus and other religious icons, Vasari wrote in 1550 that Leonardo believed that it was better to die a philosopher than to die a Christian. He did not like the idea of a religion that had chosen to be symbolized by an act of human ferocity (the crucifixion) and therefore rejected this aspect of the fables. Instead, he tried to search for the more pleasant parts of it by believing that artist are just like poets and can produce “a fiction that signifies great things”. “Even in his religious paintings he was representing actors of the human comedy or tragedy”.
Since da Vinci was born outside of his time and didn’t really contribute a whole lot to humanity (not to say he was irrelevant), it seems more like he is a symbol. People such as Albert Einstein, William Shakespeare, and Immanuel Kant can be said to have contributed a lot to different fields because they actually changed the world in different ways. Leonardo did not. But that is not to take away from his greatness, he seems to be more of an ideal figure who symbolizes curiosity, wonder, and determination. We could use more minds like him in the modern era, minds that have an intellectual desire to learn how the world works and who have a deep appreciation for all the aspects of nature. He seems to be more of a figure of inspiration more than anything else.
Mona Lisa Smile
Mona Lisa Smile sets in 1950s in America, the musings that it discusses still exist in many social requests. Mona Lisa Smile is a not too bad movie to see how a school can reflect functionalist considerations through its system. In this paper, I hope to dismember Mona Lisa Smile similar to some sociological theories of guideline, which are called as functionalist and conflict approaches. Immediately, I delineate Mona Lisa Smile and sociological theories of preparing.
Depiction and Elaboration of Mona Lisa Grin
Mona Lisa Smile is a 2003 American movie that depicts the story of a free-vivacious craftsmanship history teacher and her preservationist female understudies at Wellesley School in 1953. The film begins with the time when craftsmanship history instructor, Katherine Watson, recognizes a demonstrating position at the regarded Wellesley School, which is a women’s school. In this way for her next addresses, she doesn’t take after the syllabus to impact her understudies to stand up to some attempting request that they have to consider and find the suitable reactions themselves. She uses her classes to show her understudies Current Craftsmanship. For instance, at one of classes, understudies make sense of how to get prepared for their life partners’ chief if they are getting back home to dinner. Betty Warren is one of those understudies who recognize woman’s standard part. She misses a couple of classes due to her exceptional first night, which isn’t an issue since school exhibits opposition for its married understudies. Regardless, Katherine does not recognize this positive partition which urges understudies to marry early. In the movie, she has a trade on this with her understudy Betty. Betty and Katherine often have conflicts on woman’s position and marriage in the midst of the film. Joan Brandwyn is another understudy who is also Betty’s beloved partner. With the help of Katherine, she gets recognized by Yale Graduate school. This mistake gives Katherine a gigantic bafflement since she needs her understudies to understand that they don’t have to relinquish their jobs for marriage since they can do both. At one of her classes, she displays a couple of ads where women are showed up as housemates and needs her understudies to deliver what’s to come will think about them.
Since she uses her classes to impact her understudies to think about differing contemplations and advances toward getting to be colleagues with them, the schools boss alert Katherine remembering the true goal to keep up traditionalist musings at school. They have to confine Katherine’s syllabus and relationship with her understudies in case she stays as a craftsmanship history instructor for the next year at Wellesley School. Katherine does not recognize inhibitive conditions and leaves Wellesley School. Finally, she can win to have her understudies, including Betty, look past traditions and social models.
Sociological Basics of Instruction Functionalist Hypothesis
Functionalist hypothesis of human science sees society as a machine which comprises of various parts that have distinctive capacities to make the important unique vitality so as to influence society to work. It guarantees that, in a well-practical society, not exclusively are schools in charge of mingling understudies into some legitimate qualities, yet in addition instructive projects and structures should empower social solidarity.
Functionalism thinks about schools as foundations in light of a legitimate concern for lion’s share of people while struggle hypothesis guarantees that schools work for the advantage of the prevailing gathering of people in the public . The political points of tutoring incorporate planning understudies to take an interest in political requests and showing them the essential laws of the public . Schools shape their understudies to fit into current social practices and be a piece of political, financial and social structures in the public .
Contrary to functionalist hypothesis, strife hypothesis thinks about the social request as a result of both intimidation and ideological control. The Marxist investigate of functionalism contends that tutoring and the class framework draw a correspondence, implying that while privileged understudies get an instruction which sets them up for school and high status occupation positions, common laborers understudies often get a training which sets them up for employments that don’t require much savvy foundation. Strife hypothesis keeps up that schools fortify disparity among understudies than a legitimacy based accomplishment rating.
Investigation of Mona Lisa Grin Regarding Social Establishments of Instruction and sex parts
Mona Lisa Smile demonstrates to us how a school can train its understudies according to some functionalist considerations. Regardless, school structure and its understudies make her vibe disappointed in light of the way that she assumes that Wellesley School should have been “a place for tomorrow’s pioneers, not their life partners”.
The movie can be dismembered in light of functionalist and difficulty theories. Functionalist speculation doesn’t confine to direction for young women. In any case, some functionalist approaches battle that guideline for young women would make extraordinary future mothers who are better at watch over their children and have a prevalent kinship for their mates. As a result of this understanding, women may shape their conditional plans in perspective of the wants for society. An instance of this case is given evidently with this trade in the movie.
KATHERINE WATSON: [Looking over Joan’s file] “Pre-law? Well you have you picked which graduate school you’re going to? “
JOAN BRANDWYN: “Well, I haven’t mulled over it. After Wellesley, I foresee getting hitched. “
KATHERINE WATSON: “And subsequently what? “
JOAN BRANDWYN: [confused] “And subsequently you I’ll be hitched. “
Regardless, as it is found in this scene, Joan considers having a better than average marriage after the school as the target of her life in light of the way that the school and its covered instructive modules amazement this idea on her. After this discourse, Joan uncovers to Katherine that she would go to Yale Graduate school in case she was thinking to be a lawful counsel.
In her second article, Betty’s words can be connected with functionalist approach, too.
Wellesley young women who are hitched have ended up being gifted at modifying their duties. It is our commitment nay, pledge to recoup our place in the home, bearing the youths that will pass on our traditions into what’s to come. tau
The piece of woman in the family and society is a subject that most of sociological theories are continually enthusiastic about. The way women are seen, trained and induced in Mona Lisa Smile mirrors various considerations which functionalist speculation supports while battle theory confines. Whether the film may give off an impression of being expelled in the sentiment of its date and country, those contemplations stiwein the present social requests. In this way much the same as in the film Katherine impacts her understudies to examine their parts, we ought to investigate our set up informative and social structures. That is the reason, understanding their hid focuses can help us with changing our overall population invaluable.
Analysis Of The Paintings By Leonardo Da Vinci And Their Impact On The World
In the European history The Italian Renaissance began in 14th century and lasted until the 17th century. Renaissance means “rebirth”, because it was known as the cultural revival and was a huge change in the European history from medieval period to modernity. Before the Renaissance, there was a period known as the Middle Ages, however it’s mostly known as the Dark Ages. It was a period between The Decline of the Roman Empire in 476 C. E. and the Renaissance, where there were no accomplishments. After The Decline of the Roman Empire, not a single state or government united the people who lived in Rome. Moreover, Catholic Church became powerful and leaders drew their power from the alliances with the protection of the Church. People across Europe had to give 10% of the earnings each year to the church, which helped a great deal of money and power. Therefore, the economy in Europe was raised. However, Renaissance was a cultural and religious movement, and when people started finding interests in new things. One of the people was Leonardo da Vinci.
Leonardo was an Italian polymath who had interests in inventions, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He was known as the greatest painter of all times. His most famous paintings were Virgin of the Rocks, Mona Lisa, and The Last Supper. All of his paintings were unique in their own ways, leading to cultural religious understandings, inspiring others in artistic and intellectual ways, and was remarkable in the history of art. However, Leonardo’s inventions and scientific ideas were never published to the public.
There were two identical pieces for Virgin of the Rocks, or sometimes known as The Madonna of the Rocks. Some believe that the first painting “Madonna of the Rocks, Louvre” was helped by de Predis brothers and was gifted to Louis XII. The second painting which is now in London was accused that Leonardo did not painted it, however not long ago, according to the National Gallery, it was entirely painted by Leonardo himself. Geologist, Ann C Pizzorusso studied the two paintings, which the “Louvre” shows the formations of rocks, and that the London version does not. Leonardo was an artist that mastered realism, and went to great lengths when it comes to paintings with very demanding details and very accurate and precise definitions that only some could understand. However, there is a possibility that the National Gallery’s statement could be incorrect due to the style and the commitment in painting natural elements. Another outstanding painting is the Mona Lisa. Mona Lisa is an oil painting that is the best known painting and one of the most valuable paintings in the world. Even though, experts say that this painting was certainly painted between 1503 and 1506, the exact dates are still yet to be found. This painting also provides the characteristics of Leonardo’s style in the final years of his life. Renaissance men and women stated that there’s resemblance between Mona Lisa and the Virgin Mary of the Renaissance period.
Frank Zollner, a German professor stated that how Mona Lisa is painted follows the trail to Flemish models and paintings. To be specific, it peculiarly shows the vertical slices of columns at both sides of the panel had precedents that represent the Flemish portraiture. Moreover, Leonardo da Vinci was one of the very few artists that mastered the vanishing point. Vanishing point includes creating the sensational depth and drawing diagonal lines that intersects in a painting’s background to create three-dimensionality in a two-dimensional frame. This technique can be found in The Last Supper, which Leonardo spent three years on.
The Last Supper is a religious painting were he individualized Christ in the middle of the painting, and was separated from the others, yet at the same time, they were all united with one another, including Christ. Around Christ, there lies twelve disciples; which includes a traitor. Leonardo managed to express the emotions and thoughts of the twelve disciples through facial expressions, and demonstrating their personal reactions and movements they made. Not only was he known as the greatest painter of all times, he was also known as the greatest inventor in history, even though he had very little impact on technology. Sketches and diagrams were drawn in his notebooks, but they were never published to the public. He either lost interest in them or was because he wasn’t able to convince the wealthy patrons to finance the materials and supplies that were needed to build he models. Therefore, all his inventions were never built while he was alive. His ideas and inventions were gone to waste.
“Madonna of the Rocks, Louvre” inspired people all over Europe including Leonardo’s students. Therefore, the National Gallery claimed that the London version was painted by Leonardo’s very own students Boltraffio and d’Oggiono to show the devotion to their teacher, illustrating the natural forms and elements in their own unique ways. In the Louvre painting, it shows the Leonardo’s sfumato technique and it’s perceptible. Leonardo’s sfumato technique is fine shading that shows the gentleness and is indiscernible between the colors and tones. He also illustrated his talent for 3D effects applied to the landscape background. Knowing the differences in these two paintings, both paintings were successful weather Leonardo painted one or both.
Another painting that the sfumato technique was used was in the Mona Lisa. Mona Lisa sets the goal for all future oil-painted portraits, because Leonardo illustrated the magnificent mixture of landscape and portrait. The sfumato technique was also used for particularly for her hair, which reflects the rivers and valleys in the landscape behind her. Raphael, a young artist, adopted the Mona Lisa format for his own portraits, because he sketched through Leonardo’s work in progress. Over a dozen of outstanding replicas of Mona Lisa exist; most of them were replicated by Leonardo’s students. In addition, his painting, Mona Lisa inspired American lyricist Ray Evans and songwriter Jay Harold Livingston to compose the beautiful tunes and lyrics of a classic song “Mona Lisa. ”His artworks were influential that even Michelangelo and Raphael chose to adopt same Leonardo’s signature techniques was to create similarly active, realistic figures with naturalistic structures. The artistic standards of his days would guide generations of artists that followed. The Last Supper has been recreated, referenced, and imitated in the Western culture, mostly into creations such as: paintings, mosaics, and photography. In 1955, an artist named Salvador Dali recreated The Last Supper as “The Sacrament of The Last Supper. ” The Sacrament of The Last Supper was the opposite of the original painting; Christ was drawn as a blond, pointed out the shaded torso, and the disciples were drawn bowed down so that they could not be identified.
Only long after his death, his notebooks were found. Leonardo da Vinci was the man ahead of his time; if his inventions were actually built, it would have change history. It could have transformed the history of technology, even though with the materials in the 15th and 16th century could not have been possible. It’s a tragedy that his diagrams and sketches were never published and the fact that people only discovered it long after his death. Almost all of the inventions work if they were to be built while he was alive. Hence, he has no to very little effect on technology.
Leonardo da Vinci’s paintings were mostly about religious events during the Renaissance. Christianity have an influence during the Renaissance, thus his paintings were related Christ. His paintings shaped the way we see Christianity today, and people use his paintings as examples to sometimes spread the religion. Also, his paintings set the goals for young artists due to the meticulous details, creativity, techniques, and commitment to painting. Recently, engineers started to construct the models of Leonardo’s diagrams and sketches. As a result, his ideas and inventions actually worked. In conclusion, till today he has an influence on cultural religious understandings, inspiring young artists to work harder, and leaving intellectual, scientific, technological ideas and inventions behind. The Virgin of the Rocks, Mona Lisa, and The Last Supper were the three most outstanding artworks of Leonardo da Vinci’s collections, because Leonardo, who have mastered realism, used sfumato technique, Flemish models, vanishing points, and 3D techniques in these paintings. Not everyone could understand the definitions of these paintings, due to his accuracy and precision, and rigorous details painted. Furthermore, Leonardo da Vinci has a huge impact on the world today which was expressed throughout his artworks and inventions.