Robert Louis Stevenson
How Mr. Hyde Transformed In Robert Louis Stevenson’s Novel. The Stranger’s Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde
Stevenson uses many different language techniques and devices in order to present the transformation of Mr Hyde. Stevenson uses detailed description to present Hyde for the first time to Dr Lanyon. Although Stevenson doesn’t directly state that it is Hyde, through his vivid description we are able to identify the person as Mr Hyde. Throughout the novel we begin to associate ‘small’ with Mr Hyde, whenever Mr Hyde is mentioned he is most likely described with this adjective. As we begin to read chapter 9 and we see Lanyon describe a man as ‘small’ with a ‘shocking expression of is face.’ We automatically think that this character is Mr Hyde; this is ultimately down to Stevenson’s continual effective description of Mr Hyde, constantly referring to his size and the sense of fear Hyde cerates whenever he appears in the novel. When we consider this particular chapter we have to consider the attitudes of the Victorian people at the time towards it. At the time the play was written people would have believed in the perfect Victorian gentlemen a man who kept himself to himself, had a good reputation, and didn’t have any secrets. The irony appears as Hyde is far from this character, so this would have particularly surprised the people at the time of reading this.
Stevenson uses another language device, sibilance, in order to add to suspense created at the transformation of Hyde. In Chapter 9 Stevenson adds to his tri-colons by using sibilance here. When describing the effect of Mr Hyde on himself, Lanyon describes Hyde as a ‘creature that now faced me… something seizing, surprising, and revolting.’ The subtle use of the sibilance here adds to the very descriptive tri-colon. The adjectives used to describe Hyde generally fit with the general consensus we have for him, with Hyde being described as a creature and as having something ‘seizing’ and ‘revolting’. When looking at analysing this chapter we must also consider the sense of mystery in Gothic Novels but more importantly in this novel. At the time members of the audience and the readers wouldn’t be aware of the ‘twist’ if you like in the novella. So in this chapter we see his detailed description and his effective structure come into play when revealing the ‘twist’ to the reader.
When the big revelation finally arrives Stevenson ensures he uses many different techniques in order to create as much suspense as possible. One of the most prevalent techniques that is applied here is the sense of dramatic irony. The reason n that this is able to occur and be used is mainly due to Stevenson ingenious structure throughout the novel. Aside from the dramatic irony Stevenson uses rhetorical questions in order to entice the reader and Lanyon to staying and witnessing what is about to happen. Hyde asks Lanyon ‘Will you be wise? Will you be guided?’, here we start to wonder if Lanyon is going to accept the offer. As a typical Victorian gentleman we would expect Lanyon to stick to his values and refuse, as he hasn’t explicitly been asked to stay. However we later find out that he does accept the request.
How Robert Louis Stevenson Has Used Story Telling, Setting And Characterization To Bring Out The Theme Of Duality In The Novel Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde
Analysis of Stylistic Figures in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Every day, innocent people are brutally murdered. Within the same time frame, brave civilians commit great acts of heroism, risking their lives for the betterment of others. After analyzing the wicked and courageous acts individuals undergo, one is obliged to examine human nature. How can mankind be capable of such terrible and amazing behaviors? Literary works have attempted to answer this question for decades, and Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is no exception. In his novel, Stevenson focuses on mankind’s seemingly dual nature, being both wicked and pure. One of the protagonists of the book, Dr. Jekyll, is especially tortured by his twofold personality, with his impure desires tainting his virtuous intentions. In an attempt to separate his moral and evil selves, Dr. Jekyll unintentionally creates his villainous alter-ego Mr. Hyde. Through these two characters and a variety of stylistic figures, Stevenson explores the intricacies of humanity, attempting to delineate human nature. Thus, in the novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson’s utilization of setting, multiple narrators, and direct characterization successfully develops the theme of the duality of mankind, exposing the depths of the human soul.
Stevenson’s symbolic utilization of setting effectively highlights the contrastingly virtuous and vile characteristics of humanity, upholding the theme of the duality of mankind while illustrating the complexities of human nature. In developing a multitude of unique settings, Stevenson represents the complexities of mankind. Within the first few pages, the author utilizes this stylistic figure while describing the street two characters, Utterson and Enfield, are ambling through. While the general stores resemble a series of smiling saleswomen, a crime-filled block of buildings is also nearby (Stevenson 4-5). The general stores, with their inviting atmospheres, represent the positive aspect of mankind, illustrating one personality that characterizes humanity. However, the sinister block, which resides in the same locality, represents the darker quality of human nature, revealing the complexities of the human soul and the theme of the duality of mankind overall. In the article “The Relationship of Theme and Art in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,” literary critic Joseph Egan emphasizes the symbolic nature of the setting in this tale, writing, “Hyde’s sinister doorway” is “the appropriate symbol of the ‘back door’ to Henry Jekyll’s soul” (Egan). As Egan directly maintains, the sinister doorway represents Hyde’s evil presence within the most animalistic aspect of Jekyll’s moralistic mind. Hence, Stevenson continues to maintain the central idea of the duality of mankind through the symbolic use of setting, exposing the complex nature of all individuals. Again, as author Theresa Adams declares, “As a physical environment, the city mirrors the dreadful duality of some of its inhabitants” (Adams). In this quote, Adams is emphasizing the symbolic nature of the setting, which further emphasizes mankind’s two alter-egos and the theme of the duality of human nature overall. Therefore, the utilization of multiple settings unveils the juxtaposing traits that all humans contain, maintaining the theme of the mankind’s dual characteristics. Although Stevenson’s masterful implementation of setting symbolically contributes to his theme, this very stylistic figure serves another purpose.
Stevenson’s mysterious setting efficiently aids in the development of suspense, emphasizing the central idea of the duality of human nature while discerning the depths of humanity. When Enfield first recounts his meeting with Mr. Hyde, the dark setting foreshadows the presence of this evil being. In describing the area he resolves to walk through at three o’clock in the morning, Enfield feels as if he has discovered the end of the world, with fear spreading throughout his body (Stevenson 5-6). This dark, foreboding setting engages the readers, creating a sense of dread as to the events that may transpire in such a dangerous location. By captivating the audience, Stevenson can then emphasize the theme of the duality of mankind to the engaged readers, truly educating them on the depths of humanity. Thus, Adams proclaims that Stevenson develops suspense through the mysterious backdrop of the tale, with “Jekyll’s neighborhood” being “a mixed space characterized by wealth and poverty, cleanliness and dirt, repair and disrepair” (Adams). The suspense highlighted through this quote enables Stevenson to capture the audience’s attention, permitting the author to more effectively educate the readers on the theme of the duality of mankind. Hence, as the article “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” maintains, Stevenson’s mysterious description of London foreshadows the developing presence of wickedness in the novel, creating a sense of suspense (“Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”). Through this paraphrase, the connection between the setting and the suspense of the novel is revealed, engaging the readers while maintaining the theme of the duality of mankind. Therefore, by creating such a foreboding setting, Stevenson can capture his audience’s attention. In doing so, the author can more effectively convey the theme of mankind’s dual nature to the engaged readers, exposing the depths of humanity. In addition to setting, Stevenson also utilizes the stylistic figure of multiple narrators to develop a sense of suspense, emphasizing the central idea of the novel.
Through the successful implementation of multiple narrators, Stevenson further contributes to the suspense of the novel, illustrating the theme of the duality of mankind while uncovering the depths of the human soul. One of the first characters to act as a narrator in the novel is Utterson, who is a friend of Dr. Jekyll. Utterson is ignorant to the connection between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and fears for the doctor’s safety. In one particular sentence, Utterson proclaims, “It turns me quite cold to think of this creature stealing like a thief to Harry’s bedside” (Stevenson 20). In this quote, the narrator is worrying about his companion, believing that Dr. Jekyll is being blackmailed by Mr. Hyde. Through this use of an ignorant narrator, Stevenson conceals the true circumstances surrounding Dr. Jekyll’s situation from the readers, generating suspense. This suspense engages the readers, obliging them to comprehend the theme of the duality of mankind and the intricacies of humanity overall. Thus, as literary critic Edwin Eigner writes in the essay “Robert Louis Stevenson and Romantic Tradition”, “No doubt this oblique approach to narration added to the suspense and mystery for the work’s initial audience” (Eigner). Throughout his article, Eigner maintains that the author’s utilization of multiple narrators adds to the mystery involved in the novel, persuading the audience to analyze every single word for a hint as to the connection between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Therefore, the suspense created through multiple narrators captivates the readers, obliging them to recognize the theme of the duality of mankind among all the other elements of the novel. Again, as multiple literary critics declare, Stevenson’s implementation of multiple narrators creates suspense, strengthening the novel’s focus on duplicity (“Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”). Through this paraphrase, a direct correlation is created between the central idea of duplicity and Stevenson’s utilization of multiple narrators, proving that this stylistic device upholds the theme of the novel. Overall, Stevenson’s use of multiple narrators enables the generation of suspense; this suspense captures the readers’ attention and allows them to truly comprehend all aspects of the novel, including the theme of the duality of mankind and the purpose of revealing the depths of humanity to the readers. This implementation of multiple narrators further upholds this central idea by illustrating the complex nature of the protagonists.
Stevenson’s efficacious usage of multiple narrators furthers the complexities of the characters Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, upholding the theme of the duality of mankind while exposing the intricacies of humanity. In progressively developing the layered personalities of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, with neither protagonist being as simplistic as first described, the implementation of multiple narrators aids in the evolution of these characters. During the very beginning of the book, Utterson’s companion, named Enfield, describes his negative experience when first encountering Mr. Hyde. Enfield relates to Utterson that, at first glance, Mr. Hyde resembled a Juggernaut more so than a human being (Stevenson 6). Through Enfield’s brief story, the audience is able to brush the surface of the two alter-egos, gaining a brief glimpse into the superficially unkind nature of Mr. Hyde and the general goodness of Dr. Jekyll. Hence, by slowly unveiling the characteristics of the protagonists through multiple narrators, Stevenson exposes the numerous layers of human nature, emphasizing the theme of the duality of mankind. As writer Irving Massey states, Dr. Jekyll’s colleague, Lanyon, later provides a more detailed description of Mr. Hyde’s personality, emphasizing his truly diabolical nature (Massey). Through these two narrators, Stevenson is better able to investigate the utter immorality humans are capable of, with Lanyon revealing the utter depths of Mr. Hyde’s evilness. For this reason, the author’s use of multiple narrators contributes to the theme of the duality of mankind, gradually uncovering the depths of human nature. In the essay “The Anatomy of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,” literary critic Irving Saposnik writes, “The three separable narrative voices – Enfield, Lanyon, Jekyll – are placed in successive order so that they add increasing rhetorical and psychological dimension to the events they describe” (Saposnik). Saposnik is declaring that Stevenson’s use of a multitude narrators aids in the intricate descriptions of Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll, utilizing the depth of the protagonists to highlight mankind’s duality. Therefore, the author’s implementation of multiple narrators aids in the depiction of Mr. Hyde as a truly evil individual and of Dr. Jekyll as an utterly virtuous character, constantly emphasizing the theme of the duality of mankind while exhibiting the depths of human nature. However, the author’s ambiguous use of direct characterization also contributes to the central idea being analyzed.
Stevenson’s vague direct characterization of Mr. Hyde generalizes the villain’s actions to encompass all civilizations, successfully emphasizing the evil aspect of the theme of mankind’s duality while exposing the depths of the human soul. Within the first few pages of the novel, Utterson encounters the devilish Mr. Hyde, who “gave an impression of deformity without any nameable malformation” (Stevenson 18). The vague sense of “malformation” the author directly characterizes Mr. Hyde to maintain emphasizes the villainous, animalistic quality that subtly composes all humans. Hence, this stylistic figure generalizes the protagonist’s evilness to human beings, highlighting the wickedness that partially composes all individuals and the theme of the duality of mankind in general. From a symbolical point of view, author Peter Conolly-Smith proclaims, “By suggesting that Hyde might be a criminal, the novel turns him into a blank slate upon whom the novel’s middle class readership projects its own fantasies of aberrance” (Conolly-Smith). Based on this quote, Stevenson’s direct characterization of Mr. Hyde as the generally immoral aspect of mankind aids in the development of the theme of mankind’s duality, exposing the contrastingly evil and virtuous traits that compose all of humanity. Once more, literary critic Edwin Eigner maintains that Mr. Hyde is the wicked face of the dual sided coin that is humanity (Eigner). In directly characterizing Mr. Hyde as a vaguely evil individual, with Dr. Jekyll symbolizing the virtuous side of mankind, Stevenson exposes the two sides of the coin that is human nature. Thus, in directly characterizing Mr. Hyde as the wickedness found in every individual, the stylistic figure illustrates the central idea of humans’ dual nature, exposing the various qualities that compose humanity. The author’s ambiguous characterization of Dr. Jekyll further emphasizes this central idea.
By directly characterizing Dr. Jekyll in a vaguely virtuous manner, Stevenson effectively depicts the moralistic side of human nature, upholding the theme of the duality of mankind while revealing the complexities of humanity. Utilizing direct characterization, Utterson describes Dr. Jekyll as the quintessence of kindness (Stevenson 21). By depicting the doctor in such an ambiguous and pure manner, Stevenson illustrates the benevolent qualities that compose the entire human race. Hence, the author’s vague use of direct characterization emphasizes the moral sphere of mankind, highlighting the theme of the duality of mankind while exposing the complexities of humanity. In fact, Dr. Jekyll directly describes his own personality, making “the happiness of many, but I have found it hard to reconcile with my imperious desire to wear more than commonly grave countenance before the public” (Stevenson 70). In failing to state the moral acts he feels compelled to carry out, Dr. Jekyll exhibits Stevenson’s vague use of direct characterization. The author implements this stylistic figure to illustrate the undefined virtuousness of humanity; Stevenson emphasizes the pureness that partially composes mankind and the intricacies of the human soul overall, maintaining the theme of human nature’s duality. Again, as literary critic Masao Miyoshi writes, Dr. Jekyll’s obscure morality enables Stevenson to generalize the protagonist’s traits to all of humanity (Miyoshi). Miyoshi is exposing Stevenson’s resolution to characterize Dr. Jekyll as the undefined morality of society, revealing the purity that partially composes human nature and the theme of the duality of mankind. Therefore, through the utilization of direct characterization throughout the novel, Stevenson highlights the central idea of the duality of mankind, unveiling the complexities of human nature.
In the novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson develops the theme of the duality of mankind through the utilization of multiple stylistic figures. Through the implementation of setting, Stevenson symbolically illustrates the central idea, revealing the depths of humanity. This device is also utilized to create a sense of suspense, engaging the audience so as to better emphasize the theme of humanity’s dual nature. Stevenson’s application of multiple narrators serves a dual purpose. The stylistic figure adds to the suspense of the novel, further captivating the readers in an attempt to stress the theme of the duality of mankind. Moreover, the multiple narrators develop the complexities of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, facilitating the analysis of the intricacies of humanity. Finally, the implementation of direct characterization enables the generalization of Dr. Jekyll’s and Mr. Hyde’s contrasting personalities to humanity, illustrating the theme of the duality of mankind while disclosing the overall complexities of human nature. Therefore, Robert Louis Stevenson’s utilization of setting, multiple narrators, and direct characterization in the novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde effectively emphasizes the central idea of the duality of mankind, revealing the intricacies of the human soul.
Analysis Of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
When reading literature and viewing movies much of the important messages and ideas can fly right by the audiences head without their knowledge. The best way avoid this is by entering the art we view with a purpose. The perspective in which we obtain information can change all we know about the piece we are viewing. This holds true when reading novels such as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, or even watching movies such as Birdman. Whether the audience is reading or watching the piece of art, viewing it thinking of Sigmund Freud’s theory of the psyche can change everything believed beforehand. Studying his theory can completely unravel some of the unsolved mysteries of the story.
This theory is very applicable to the story of, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson. The double character in the story is at constant battle with himself throughout the novel. When Mr. Utterson first encounters Mr. Hyde he describes him as, “pale and dwarfish, he gave an impression of deformity without any nameable malformation, he had a displeasing smile, he had borne himself to the
lawyer with a sort of murderous mixture of timidity and boldness, and he spoke with a husky, whispering and somewhat broken voice.” (Stevenson, 43) I believe this is a very significant part of the novel understanding Freud’s theory of the psyche as well as the background of the novel. Every person that encounters Mr. Hyde has a negative perspective of him. Despite Mr. Hyde being Dr. Jekyll people can only see his alter ego which is viewed as displeasing. According to Sigmund Freud’s theory of the psyche, Dr. Jekyll’s, “Id” is overpowering his “Ego” (Sheppard, 65). This is a concept that that is easily left for interpretation, but I believe that Stevenson is trying to portray our alter ego’s as more powerful than just our personality. This is the reason that people lose power of their Id and develop psychological issues. For many people, the ego is just outweighed by their desires and needs, and it may change them as a person. One of the most interesting parts of the novel is the fact that we get to see the deterioration of Dr. Jekyll as the story progresses. “I fell in slavery. I had but to drink the cup, to doff at once the body of the noted professor and to assume, like a thick cloak, that of Edward Hyde.” (Stevenson, 80) Dr. Jekyll had to consume a potion that would tame his alter ego. As the story continues he finds himself losing control and having to take larger dosages just to stay his ego, Dr. Jekyll. This potion is a metaphor to his ego fighting back, despite losing the battle to his id; Mr. Hyde. Being able to apply Sigmund Freud’s knowledge to the novel allows the reader to interpret the genius of Stevenson’s grand metaphor.
These same concepts are even possible to apply to the art of cinema. The entire movie, Birdman directed by Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu is a storyline of Riggan Thompson losing control of his Ego to his Id. Throughout the movie we find Riggan Thompson having conversations with himself, Birdman. Whenever he is alone in the film we catch him using supernatural powers that Birdman would possess. Many would be led to believe that he truly possesses these abilities, but Inarritu is depicting Riggan’s deteriorating self conflict. Despite these supernatural abilities, the beginning of the film depicts minimal obvious battle between Riggan’s Id and ego. The most subtle form of his conflict is shown through his attempt to leave the label he has received as Birdman and become an, “actor” through his broadway production. Without the actors direct conscious being aware, he is trying to make his name as renowned actor in order to fight his Id as Birdman. At the end of the day all he seeks is his desire to be famous and relevant with the modern times. Transparent to, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, we observe Riggan’s state of mind deteriorating throughout the story. By the end of the movie Thompson is having full arguments with his Birdman Id and eventually the alter ego becomes visible. Once his Id becomes visible the audience can assume that Riggan’s ego has lost control of his Id according to Freud’s theory of the psyche. Riggan gives out a screech and embodies the desires of his Id. He has embraced his alter ego and finally lost that battle that we watched over the course of the film.
The perspective in which we observe the art around us can make all of the difference in the world. Applying the concepts of Sigmund Freud has allowed me to decipher and enjoy many productions of the literature throughout this course. Authors and directors such as, Stevenson and Inarritu were able to illustrate their own perspective of the deteriorating psyche of the human being leaving the audience with an open mind on the subject.
A Study Of The Adventure Of A Young Boy In Robert Louis Stevenson’s Novel Kidnapped
The main character David in Kidnapped is used for readers to visualize someone like themselves going through great adventures. Stevenson describes everything he sees with unfamiliar eyes, just as his readers would. The plot of Kidnapped follows David’s growth from a naive young boy to a heroic, experienced man. Through his association with Alan Breck, he learns much about the “real world,” living in difficult conditions, and justice. By the end of the novel he is able to outwit his scheming uncle, and claims his inheritance. His adventure served as a rite-of-passage which made him become a much wiser and mature person.
David the Protestant Whig, is also an excellent character to interact with the highland Jacobite, Alan Breck. By making David a lowland boy, Stevenson is able to examine the clans of Scotland from a more curious and unfamiliar perspective. At first the the novel created a very negative opinion of the highlanders. By the end of the novel David has come to understand and respect them. David’s adventure, in many ways, was a paean to the Scottish highland way of life that was quickly vanishing, if not gone, by Stevenson’s time.
Kidnapped is set in the mid-eighteenth century in Scotland.The main character, David Balfour is a boy who sets out in the world to seek his fortune and undergoes hardship and danger in his travels but returns as a man to claim his rightful inheritance. Planning to cheat him of his inheritance, David’s uncle had him kidnapped. David strikes a friendship with Alan Breck, a fleeing Jacobite leader, who happens to be on the same ship as David. At sea, David and Alan become comrades and go through quite a few adventures. There are many suspenseful events like sea battles and perilous chases across the Scottish halls.
The central theme of Kidnapped is the friendship between Alan and David. It is an unlikely pairing: the young, naïve, properly Protestant Whig, David Balfour, and the older, rebellious, adventurous, Catholic Jacobite, Alan Breck Stewart. Stevenson may have wanted to show that the Whigs and the Jacobites could meet eye-to-eye sometimes, and even become friends, despite their bloody history. For most of Kidnapped, Alan serves as David’s guide. But for a short period after the shipwreck, the two are separated. Fortunately, David has held onto the silver button that Alan gave him. It is symbolic of Alan both in the plot itself, By showing the button to people, David is able to find out what Alan’s instructions were, and in a broader sense, it is symbolic of the guidance that Alan gives David throughout the novel.
Overall I really enjoyed this novel. I especially found it interesting because it reflects a part of Scotland’s history. I am part Scottish so I appreciated this factor. Stevenson chose a very unique way for the two main characters David and Alan to unite. They were part of two different Scottish clans that have a history for being enemies. Stevenson displayed their likes and differences in a way that made them perfect companions. Though this novel would have related to boys more so than girls, I would recommend this novel to people that are interested in adventure novels.
The Theme Of Deception In Stevenson’s The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde
The story of Jekyll and Hyde from beginning to end has a vast mystery around it. The whole story is based on this mysteriousness leading straight away to crimes with no suspects in mind and a huge case ahead of them. The people in this story are scantily as they seem and seemingly always contain a sort of secrets and elusive nature. In the story the prominent theme is deception of Jekyll not revealing that he has slowly been take over by a inversely different personality who seems to do evil, while Jekyll is seemingly dying slowly. In this story the acts of deception while assuming that Jekyll is a completely different person apart from Hyde is seen through the actions Jekyll leaving the undeserving Hyde the heir to his will, the murder of Sir Danvers Carew, and the apparent suicide of Hyde.
Dr. Jekyll is a really respective man that has a great amount of credentials, and by the actions of him leaving his will to Hyde created suspicion around the whole ordeal. Hyde was inversely opposite to Jekyll and has all the credentials of wrong doing on his side. A piece of evidence that strongly shows the townspeople’s disbelief is, “The will was holograph, for Mr. Utterson. though he took charge of it now that it was made, had refused to lend the least assistance in the making of it…”. In this quote even the closest friends, Jekyll and Utterson, did not see eye to eye on the subject matter of Mr. Hyde gaining all of Jekyll’s resources or even business in the case of his death of disappearance. The real problem behind the respectable Jekyll giving all of his assets and other belongings to the evil Mr. Hyde is that all the other friends are jealous and cannot see the real reason behind this action which leads back to showing the deception in this action. Another deceptive factor in this novella that ties in similarly to this deception of Sir Danvers Carew.
The murder of Sir Danvers Carew was taught to be done by a man claimed to be vicious and daring, due to Sir Danvers respectable position in parliament. The most valued suspect was Hyde who had a history of devious and daring crimes. The least noted suspect was Jekyll who was not suspected to have taken part in this action. Little to the knowledge of the citizens and detectives in London the two are in the same mind of Jekyll. Hyde is just an alternate personality that resumes controls of Jekyll’s body to do horrendous crimes and always be uncultured under the identity of the highly looked upon Dr. Jekyll.
All the evidence pointed to Hyde even though the cane was Jekyll’s they still fell to the deception and assumed that Hyde had stolen the cane which was used to bludgeon Sir Denver Carew to death. Even though Jekyll and Hyde are in the same body, the witness to the crime describes in this quote, the characteristics of Hyde that are drastically different from Jekyll’s. “Particularly small and particularly wicked-looking, is what the maid calls him”. In this quote despite the same body usage of Jekyll’s second personality of Hyde, the witness still managed to see what she assumed it was committing the crime, which morphed her reality to thinking that it was a different person than Jekyll, clearing him of all suspicion even through the involvement of his cane. Another instance where Hyde was able to conceal Jekyll from all guiltiness was his suicide.
Jekyll’s apparent letter concerning the outcome of Hyde’s faith was a hidden saving of Jekyll’s dignity and it hides his involvement with his other personality of Hyde. The reason for the Hyde part of Jekyll coming out and writing the note in the point of view of Jekyll was to create a diversion during the whole deception was to fake Jekyll’s escape and also show the death of Hyde to put all the open cases away. Doing this theoretically left Jekyll free and gone from sight with all his dignity and innocence attached. In this quote you can see the deception in place with the suicide being helpful in freeing Jekyll’s name, “I would say nothing of this paper. If your master has fled or is dead, we may at least save his credit.” This quote simply describes that they do not mind what happened to Jekyll because of his precious sickened state. They wish he well if he has escaped but, they also wish his soul freed if he has died, they are just happy to have their friends name cleared and not have him a suspect in this case. The deception won over everyone and played a mirage over what was actually happening.
In this story the acts of deception while assuming that Jekyll is a completely different person apart from Hyde is seen through the actions Jekyll leaving the undeserving Hyde the heir to his will, the murder of Sir Danvers Carew, and the apparent suicide of Hyde. This story’s deception really won over everyone and helped to free and innocent many of a dangerous personality while not becoming guilty of any of its action. Deception really took a main theme in this story because of how much significance it had on the main plot and on the main chart per of this story. This story using this deception as a whole theme, to create a massive elusiveness and mysterious nature to this novella to add more suspense and unexpected moments. All these situations portrayed show the deception and how it was used in the advantage of saving Dr. Jekyll’s innocence and finally destroying of his evil personality of Mr. Hyde.
The Problem Of Evil In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein And Robert Stevenson’s The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn once said “The battle between good and evil runs through the heart of every man”. This problem is presented in the novel Frankenstein written by Mary Shelley and the novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, written by Robert Stevenson. The novel Frankenstein talks about the protagonist Victor Frankenstein and his quest to create new life. This new life also called the creature, soon turns into his enemy and he is on a path for revenge. In the novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a london lawyer named Mr. Utterson investigates a mysterious occurrence between his old friend Dr Jekyll and his evil side Edward Hyde. Both novels illustrate that in society a person may appear good to the human eye, however the evil that lurks within an otherwise respected person may not be detected.
Victor and Dr Jekyll both have internal conflict as their creations were supposed to benefit them for good, but it brought detrimental effects to their life. Victor is in grief as his creation has lead to situations of pure crime and evil. As the death of William has been spread around society, Justine has been convicted of committing the murder. As the trial begins Victor contemplates about the harm he has brought to his family. In sorrow Victor reveals, “A thousand times rather would I have confessed myself guilty of the crime ascribed to Justine… a declaration would have been considered as the ravings of a madman, and would not have exculpated her who suffered through me”.
Victor’s creation was not supposed to abolish his family, the internal conflict Victor experiences is that Justine is experiencing the suffering that Victor should be feeling, Victor is responsible for the monster actions and should be convicted for the crime. Victor has a positive side as he understands the effects his creation has brought on Justine and William, but his evil side is portrayed as he is not able to be upfront about his actions. Inside there is still thoughts about being opinionated by society, Victor risks his own family to cover up the terrible creation Victor has made. Furthermore, Victor does not only portray internal conflict because of his guiltiness, but the fact how is life will change if people found out the truth. He believes that the monster actions will represent him, and Victor does not want to be seen as a person who created the monster.
The evil Victor portrays by letting his family members take the blame for the actions of the monster, shows how Victor is the true monster even though he meant good intentions by feeling in sorrow and feeling guilty. His internal conflict shows his good side as he does not want his family to be blamed for his actions, but at the sametime he is in conflict with himself for what society will think of him for his creation, and this causes him to make evil decisions in his life.
Similarly, Dr Jekyll has internal conflict as his potion turns him into a person that is evil. Such as when Dr jekyll leaves letters for Utterson explaining his double life as his good side turns into evil. This is when Dr Jekyll states, “I have observed that when I wore the semblance of Edward Hyde, … This, as I take it, was because all human beings, as we meet them, are commingled out of good and evil: and Edward Hyde, alone in the ranks of mankind, was pure evil”. The internal conflict that is portrayed is how Dr Jekyll made the potion to express his feelings without feeling guilty, at the same time not perishing his good name. Furthermore, it shows his internal conflict as he names his transformed ego a different name, Hyde is basically a disguise to cover, Dr Jekyll’s is in remorse as he enjoys being Hyde. In addition, it conveys that Dr Jekyll is a depressed man hiding his violent urges, he feels bad for not wanting to face consequences for his action.
Both Dr Jekyll and Victor have internal conflict as their actions cause them for feel guilty, at the same time they both have an understanding of their good and evil side, their internal conflict is the regret they have when they transition to their evil side. This presents the internal conflict that both protagonist have, their evil side causes many horrific situations in their life. It presents that a man could be either good or evil, but society can only see the pure hearted side. Both Victor and Jekyll have evil sides, the shame they have show their empathy, but the evil side is superior as they do nothing to fix their actions. (need a transition to next argument)
Both protagonist develop traits of secrecy as their inventions causes both men to make decisions that affect their relationship with the people in society. Victor’s creation causes him to be anxious as the monster cannot be found out by his long time friend Henry. As Henry reaches Ingolstadt, Victor explains how busy he is without going into major detail. Victor soon invites Henry to his apartment, in anxiouses Victor ponders “I dreaded to behold this monster, but I feared still more that Henry should see him”.
Victor is more concerned about Henry finding out what he has been working on for the past years, rather than there safety. Victors secrecy ruins his relationship with Henry as he is not himself, Victor does not show the fear he has but rather shows pride to Henry to cover up his emotions. Henry has always thought of Victor as an intelligent young man, Victor believes that if he explains his suffering Henry would lose his admiration for him as a scientist. This causing their relationship to be vastly different as Henry would be put in a superior position as he helps Victor, which is something Victor is not used to.
Equally important Dr Jekyll develops traits of secrecy as he is fear of ruining his well known name. In the letter Dr Jekyll wrote before his death, he states his perception about his two sides by saying “ Hence it came about that I concealed my pleasures; …I stood already committed to a profound duplicity of me…I regarded and hid them with an almost morbid sense of shame”. Dr Jekyll keeps his evil side a secret as he wants to portray a person with a high social status in society. Dr Jekyll wants his actions to remain hidden, so that he can fit in society.
The decision of keeping his evil side a secret causes his evil side to be more stronger and more detrimental when it releases, this is due to the reason that Dr Jekyll’s emotions are suppressed for a very long time. This affects his relationship with society as when Dr Jekyll turns evil he ends up committing crimes, this leaves him more vulnerable for people in society finding the truth about him. Ultimately, Dr Jekyll and Victor both develop secrecy for selfish purposes, they are both ashamed and want to keep their evil suppressed to maintain an high social status. This jeopardizing their relationship with friends and society. Both protagonist hide their evil side in hopes of the society only knows them for being well respected scientist, they are not suspected as evil as they will do anything to protect their name.
Through the portrayal of character, both societies present a positive attitude towards Victor and Dr Jekyll, but inside are still evil thoughts and feelings that causes self destruction. Victors over ambitious character may look inspirational to society, but can lead to a path of self destruction. When Victors whole family is dead he leaves Geneva in search of revenge, he travels through ice and snow, and this is where he meets Walton and tells him his story. In that story he mentions, “What comment can I make on the ultimately extinction of this glorious spirit?”. Victor is in despair as he lectures Walton about the dangers of uncontrolled ambitions, Victor’s quest for knowledge turned more into a sin, as throughout his journey he suffered many deaths of his loved ones, and abandoned relationships he has kept for many years. These sacrifices meant nothing in the end, as he is in sorrow for the mistakes he has committed throughout his journey. Victor is unable to face up to the consequences as his goal to create new life appeared memorable to society, but Victors evil and his over ambitious character causes him to self destruct.
On the contrary Dr Jekyll ambition was to use science to benefit himself, but Dr Jekyll wanted to be evil, him wanting to be evil and maintaining his good name caused self destruction. For instance, during Dr Jekyll’s final statement he states “ At that time my virtue slumbered; my evil, kept awake by ambition, was alert and swift to seize the occasion; and the thing that was projected was Edward Hyde”. Dr Jekyll repressed his evilness, so Hyde can come out stronger, the use of his potions were to divide the nature of man and bring his darker side out. This ambition of being happy and maintaining a good social status causes destruction as Hyde takes over and kills Dr Jekyll to continue his evil play.
Eventually, both Dr Jekyll and Victor have a character trait of being over ambitious as they take their goals to an extreme, both of their goals caused them both self destruction as they sacrificed many aspects of their life, such as friends and family for Victor and Dr Jekyll sacrificed his real emotions by suppressing it. To society both goals seem fine as they try to use science to create new life and separate both good and evil, but society could not see the evil purposes for these experiments, and now both protagonist try covering up these mistake so their evil goes undetected by society.
Society may respect a person on how they act when people are observing, but society cannot uncover the true evil that ponders through a well respected man. Both Victor and Dr Jekyll experience internal conflict as there experiments brought depair to their life. In addition, Victor and Dr Jekyll develop traits of secrecy, as their hide every aspect of their life, thus affecting their relationship with family and society. Finally, through the portrayal of character both protagonists have goals, but there over ambitious character causes them to self destruct.
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Vs the Holy Bible: Mysticism and Prevalence of Evil in Humans
When thinking of the fall from grace one would immediately reference Adam and Eve. A classic story in the book of genesis that tells how man came to be and how man messed things up. But let’s take it back a little further; back to a time before earth was created by God. In the Heavens, god is all supreme ruler over His angels. He is alpha and omega, beginning and end. This being of ultimate power and control was loved and adored by all his creations; all except for Lucifer. Lucifer, God’s closest and most powerful angel, was jealous of Gods’ power and so he plotted to overtake Him. And of course he did not win and was cast out of Heaven. Now this, is a fall from grace. A creation that was “the son of the dawn” (Isaiah 14:12) was sent from glory all because of a hunger that plagues all of humanity to this day: control. In this essay, the question whether the author used mysticism and the prevalence of evil in order to support the theory that there humans are destined for evil, shall be compared through the analysis of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Stevenson and the Holy Bible; with excerpts from Elliot Sobers’ “Core Questions in Philosophy.”
Mysticism is in more or less words the prime element of the story Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. As defined by dictionary.com it is “a doctrine of an immediate spiritual intuition of truths believed to transcend ordinary understanding, or of a direct, intimate union of the soul with God through contemplation or ecstasy.” Basically this novel was taking a step into the supernatural, and it is much needed to add a whole new dimension to the plot. Believing the unbelievable, such as God or Satan, is the necessary (and most commonly rejected) concept that leaves room for the introduction of Evil. Mr. Hyde is a character that depicts the description of evil. No one in the town could conjure a reasonable explanation as to why Mr. Hyde was such an unpleasant man except that “He is not easy to describe. There is something wrong with his appearance; something displeasing, something downright detestable. I never saw a man I so disliked, and yet I scarce know why” (ch.1). This sort of sixth sense that everyone is having about this good looking devil is a mystic trait. The presence of evil could be detected and therefore physically felt by the characters and even the reader. This awareness can also be compared with what is said in the Bible
The prevalence of Evil: The Argument of Evil as said in the Sober text is the theory that if evil exists in the world, then there cannot be an all-powerful, all-kind, all-good (all-PKG for short) being that exists. This was the arguments most basic form and it left out several factors that are extremely relevant to the prevalence of evil on earth such as: human evil and natural evil, and soul-building evils. In Stevenson’s work we find that Dr. Jekyll is constantly in a battle with his own human evil. He is incapable of being a good person with the evil in his heart. However, this story takes a step further by personifying the evil of Dr. Jekyll through his experimentation with Mr. Hyde. The evil of Mr. Hyde resonated within Dr. Jekyll, so when he is still experiencing turmoil from an evil presence in himself this shows us that there is nothing to be done. He is naturally evil, and this is how the monster of Mr. Hyde begins to take over.
Continuing into the inevitable doom of humans and their incapability to do what is right and good. Free will.
Robert Louis Stevenson: Life, Works, Death
Robert Louis Stevenson Biography
Robert Louis Stevenson was born on November 13, 1850 in Edinburgh, Scotland. His name wasn’t always that, though. By birth, he was Robert Lewis Stevenson. His middle name was later changed from “Lewis” to “Louis”. Stevenson came from a good family, but was somewhat rebellious and went against their religion, and many other things. These other things included his father’s dream for him to be an engineer. This was especially important to Stevenson’s father because he was one of the first people ever to design lighthouses. Stevenson was supposed to learn about engineering when he enrolled in Edinburgh University, but instead chose to study law. While in college, Stevenson changed his mind a lot. Even though he got a degree in law, he never practiced because he decided what he wanted to do: he wanted to write.
After he was finished with college, Stevenson began to write more and more. At first, he only got a few essays published, and even those were with the help of his family. After writing many essays, Stevenson started to find more humor in people and things to write about. From 1876 to 1879, Stevenson had several of his works published in magazines. Although they did not receive much attention from critics, many other people admired them for the tone they were written in. Stevenson used a somewhat whimsy and ironic tone, modeled after Thomas Browne’s works, which Stevenson greatly admired. Gradually, Stevenson began to write about more important things, such as health, age, and marriage. His first full-length book, An Inland Voyage, was published in 1878. It was based on a journal he had kept from a canoe trip from Antwerp to Northern France. Many critics positively review this book, but it did not sell as many copies as Stevenson was hoping.
In 1879, Stevenson set off for the United States by boat. He was going to meet his future wife, Fanny Osbourne. He had met her on his canoe trip a few years ago, and wanted to travel to her home in California. The 11-day trip from Europe to the United States was very rough for Stevenson, who was already very apt to sicknesses. He arrived in New York in a horrible condition and with almost no money left. He then took a train to California in even worse conditions, and almost died there. While in California, Fanny got a divorce from her previous husband, and the two married. Their honeymoon was at an abandoned silver mine. Stevenson wrote a book recounting his experience and journey to the United States. It was titled The Amateur Emigrant, and published in 1883.
In the next years, Stevenson traveled quite a bit with his wife, but often became ill. He wrote some of his most famous novels confined to bed, because writing was one of the only things he could do during that time. He wrote part of Treasure Island while in Mexico, but again fell ill and had to continue the story from bed. Many of his stories were derived from personal experiences, or his life in general. After his father became ill, Stevenson became depressed and wrote The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Stevenson himself had a tendency to become ill, too. Because he had more time to be at home while he was ill, Stevenson spent more time with his stepson. This inspired him to write stories with a youthful protagonist, and he wrote Kidnapped. With growing health problems in the end of the 1880’s, he wrote a lot more to friends across the sea. He expressed a desire to see his family again. Unfortunately, he never got to.
Robert Louis Stevenson died in 1894 from a stroke. He was 44 years old. Some say that he was at the height of his creative powers when he died. Some people might not know that Stevenson wrote a fair amount of poems, too, and he was buried as hinted at in one of them, on top of Mount Vaea. His poem “Requiem”, in relevant part, read, “Under the wide and starry sky, Dig the grave and let me lie.”
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson: Psychoanalytic Review
The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a kind of a horroric gothic story. We have the insane scientist, the mysterious monster, crime, disappearance and everything we need. One of the most interesting aspect of it is the appearance of the double in the personality. We have all heard stories or watched films like Black Swan about personality duality. When we reach the end of the The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde a lot of question arise in our minds: what are the negative and positive sides of the personality of the character in the story, what controls the double if it can be controlled at all, what controls which sides come over the otder side, when the double occures in a personality does the person capable to realize it or is it uncouscios, and the questions which are the most interesting for us: it a real disease, if it is then what causes it and how can the person realize it?
First of all, in the novel the positive and the negative sides of the personality can be easily recognized even if we are not psychologists. The positive side is represented by Dr. Jekyll and the negative side appeares as Mr. Hyde. The difference between positive and negative can be removed from the actions and the character of the players. The character of Dr. Jekyll embodies the good. He is the outstanding doctor,scientist of the victorian society who is rich, good-looking and beneficient, but absent-minded and too outgoing. In spite of Jekyll, Hyde is a promotion being who is not capable and do not want to reign his desires. He is unscrupulous, the crime and the pleasures makes him happy. What he wants he get it no matter what, he does not care about the consequences. Not even murder stops him. As the name also represent some eeriness, Mr. Hyde is the part of the personality which is ridden in Jekyll. The physical appearance of these charaters can also be an evidence of this diversity between good and bad. While Jekyll is tall and strong, Hyde is small and gives us a feeling of uncanny. According to Sigmund Freud the feeling of uncanny can be originated in unfamiliar things (Freud: ”The uncanny”). Nobody can give a complete describtion of him, nobody knows how he really looks like, but everybody knows that he has some kind of deformation. As I mentioned the actions of the players also play an important role in the characteristic. Jekyll serves the public good with his profession, but Hyde is a rebel who kills a person without regreting it. Do you think that Jekyll would be able to do such a thing? I do not think so. Jekyll lives by rules, he would never take away a person’s life. That is the best evidence for the present good and bad in the novel.
The second question which arises in our mind at the end of the story is that what constrols the double and can it be controlled at all? The answer has a rather psychological basis. The name of Sigmund Freud appears again here, who is considered to be the creator of psychoanalysis. In the mind of Freud, there are three main agencies in people’s mind which are responsible for keeping the control and their interactions resulting the human behaviour. These three agencies are called: ID, ego and superego. In the ID people’s mind store desires which are repressed, because they goes against laws or social expectations. The superego is responsoble for human’s conscientious behaviour. The ego works as a ballancing agency between the ID and the superego. It makes sure that the desires stays at their places and superego keep the rules, the social expectations and laws at the first place. There is a very thin line between consciousness and unconsciousness, which is easy to step over. When the ego loose control over the ID, the repressed desires come to the surface and lodge themselves in the superego, which considers them as allowed things. As a result, an alterego turns up, which is known as the double (Freud: Pszichoanalízis). In The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Hyde is obviously the double of Jekyll. Hyde is considered to be the ’pure evil’ , but he is just a part of Jekyll’s personality. The answer to the question what controls the double or can it be controlled at all is the desire of the person to maximalise it’s own self-esteem.
Another answer is needed for the question of what controls which sides come over the oder side. I would say that humans will for joy and self-realization. In the investigated story Hyde wanted to live on his own way, wanted to be free. The backgroud of it lies in the Victorian age (Bényei 89). At that time Christian wold view was the accepted view of world, work was in the first place and loss of pleasure resulted hidden desires and wills in people’s mind. This diversity between wanted and allowed things at the time created Hyde in Jekyll and it is also allowed him to take over control Jekyll’s body and mind. These differences also encouraged people to do things secretly as in the story people fulfilled their desires and forbidden things in the shadow of the night in order to keep it a secret and not to be judged with criticism by people who have the same disires, but they are not able to achive their goals. Why? I have to say that fear and the knowledge that these are hardly judged and in contrast with the laws of the Victorian age.
Further question is, when the double occures in a personality does the person capable to realize it or is it uncouscios? Not from the very beginning, but there is a point when the person realizes that there is something wrong. For Jekyll that point was the moment when he woke up as Hyde. He does not know why, because he have not had a problem with the serum so far. He also realizes that Hyde began to overcome him, so it turnes out that he has to make a decision as soon as possible. A decision which will effect his further life: choose between Jekyll and Hyde. Would you choose to give up all the desires you have just to fit in the social expectations ? It is a hard decision, isn’t it? It was not for Jekyll. He knew what he had to do, but things not always goes as we plan. It is a psychological fact that when a double occures it does not disappear except taking constant medication or end with the death of the person. Why Jekyll sacrafice himself? Here is a quotation from the chapter titled ’Henry Jekyll’s Full Statement of The Case’: ”A change had come over me. It was no longer the fear of the gallows, it was the horror of being Hyde that racked me” (Stevenson 92). It is that simple. Nobody wants to lose control over their own body.
Last but not least, is it a real disease, if it is then what causes it and how can the person realize it? Among mental illnesses personality duality is a really series disease like schizophrenia. According to researchers dealing with mental illnesses these confusions are caused by the imballance of the instinctual impulses (Dr.Tringer László: “A psziciátria tankönyve”). As I mentioned, the disease for Dr. Jekyll was caused by the too strict social expectations at the Victorian age. The diseases which we discuss here have several foreshadows. The two most well-known presages are the hallucination and paranoid behavior, but we can count the disorganized speech and thinking here, as well. Like most of the mental illnesses it appears in stages. In the story, Hyde is always in a rush. As we read it we have a feeling that he wants to hide from someone, like he feels that someone is after him, follows him. This can be the evidence that the person does have a paranoid behavior and we can take it as a sign of mental illness. These mental diseases do not disappear easily. Of course, they can be cured with medicine, but they are like relive a trauma again and again while the bad memories take the person to madness. Jekyll also feels crazy as we move towards the end of the story and he wants to end his double. As a consequence he dies.
To sum up, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is based on a mental illness. The age of the writer gave him the idea of the double and his aim was to get people’s attention and draws their attention for the double life which they lived. From the reaction of people in the story we can make a conclusion about the double. The double is scary and give us a feeling of some kind of deformation. People have a fear of deformed things or we can say people as well. The double is present in every single human being in the world, but what really matters is that what quantity it surmounts in the personality of a person.